An overview of the history of Intel CPUs (Part 1)

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 The main office of this company is located in California and more than 106 thousand employees are working in this company all over the world.

In the latest ranking conducted by Forbes in 2021, Intel ranked 36th in the list of the world’s most valuable brands. Intel is active in various fields. Areas such as motherboards, network cards, chipsets, Bluetooth and flash memories, as well as all types of microprocessors, semiconductors, integrated circuits, graphics processing units and embedded systems. Most of the users know Intel with its CPUs. Join us to review the history of Intel CPUs together.

The 4004 was Intel’s first CPU

released in 1971. The purpose of producing this 4-bit processor was related to three microchips 4001 ROM 4002, RAM and 4003 Shift Register. Although the 4004 could perform calculations, the presence of three other microchips was necessary to create the necessary functions for processing. This CPU was not designed for use in computers and was mostly used in calculators and similar devices. The release of the 4004 processor provided a good reputation for Intel in the field of microprocessors, and Intel, in order to make the most of this reputation, launched its first 8-bit processor line with the introduction of the 8008 processor in 1972. Following the introduction of

8008, the 8080

model was released in 1974 and the 8085 model was released in 1975. The 8008 processor offered faster performance than the 4004 thanks to its 8-bit processor, but due to its conservative clock rate of 200-800 kHz, it was not attractive to system developers.

The Intel 8080 CPU performed much better than the 8008 model. For the first time, Intel unveiled the 6-micron transistor manufacturing technology in this model, and because of this feature, the clock speed of the CPU 8080 reached 2 to 3.125 MHz, which was an acceptable speed at that time. The good performance of the 8080 made many devices use it. This led Microsoft to develop software compatible with Intel CPUs.

8086: The beginning of x86 in the history of Intel CPUs

The first 16-bit processor is the Intel 8086, which was released in 1978 and compared to the previous processors, it had great performance. Not only was the 8086 clocked higher than the 8080, it also supported a 16-bit bus and a 6-byte longer stack. This processor was able to perform 16-bit tasks. This is while most of the software at that time was designed for 8-bit processors.

 A year after the release of 8086, Intel released the 8088 model, which was based on the 8086 model, with the difference that the data transfer lines were halved and the stack size was reduced from 6 bytes to 4 bytes. Because of this, the balance of this processor was disturbed and it could not provide better performance than CPU 8086.

80188,80186

Intel continued the production of the 8086 model by producing several other processors, all of which used the 16-bit architecture in common. The first processor of this series was the 80186 model, to which Intel added several pieces of hardware that were usually added to the CPU on the motherboard. including clock generator, interrupt controller and timer. As a result, specific instructions were executed with better performance than 8086 even though the clock speed was the same. The 80188 CPU had the same hardware components as the previous model, but like the 8088, its data transmission lines were halved.

History of AMD processors (Part I)

Today, most people may know AMD with Radeon series graphics cards, but old hardware enthusiasts remember this company mostly because of its close competition with Intel in the field of processor design and manufacturing. In this series, we are going to take a look at the history of processors manufactured by this company, and the war between the two giants of chip manufacturing in the last decade. Stay with Zoomit .

 There is no doubt that the processor industry owes much of its progress today to AMD’s innovations. AMD released the first multi-core processors, the first 64-bit processors, and the first processors with clock speeds above 1 GHz on a mass market. The company also played a significant role in integrating the memory controller into the CPU and popularizing APUs. Part of the progress of other processor manufacturing companies like Intel is largely due to their tight competition with AMD.

 But AMD, which today no longer has the former glory in the processor market, where did it start? What is the current state of this company and what will its plans be for the future?

AMD is born!

Since AMD was founded in 1969, the company’s focus has always been on manufacturing microprocessors and similar computer components. At the beginning of the activity, AMD only produced processors designed by other companies such as Fairchild (Fairchild Semiconductor). Although over time AMD started to design other complete computer components in-house, it took years for the company to produce the first processor designed by itself.

 AM9080 and AM2900

In 1975, ADM produced its first self-designed processors. Of course, technically AM2900 was not considered a processor; Rather, it was a set of parts used to build a 4-bit modular processor. AMD also produced the AM9080 in the same year, which was actually a copy of Intel’s 8-bit microprocessor named 8080, and its construction was made possible through reverse engineering. Bottom of Form

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