Cyber ​​security is a very vital and important issue that has received special attention in today’s world, and with the advancement of technology and communication, cyber attacks have also increased greatly, which sometimes have serious consequences for individuals and organizations. Therefore, in order to achieve cyber security, one should pay attention to issues related to the security of data, networks, software, etc.; Protecting confidential and important resources against unauthorized access and hackers, using strong encryption, updating security systems, training employees in the field of cyber security, etc. are some of the protective measures to prevent and deal with cyber attacks.

Cyber ​​security refers to the set of actions and measures that are necessary to protect our information and data in the Internet space; These security measures are implemented through measures, techniques and technologies such as encryption, firewalls, anti-virus software, security updates and user training to identify and prevent cyber threats.

Considering the unlimited and extensive user spaces that are available to virtual users more and more every day; The scope of cyber activity and security has also expanded and requires consultation, science and diverse expertise to prevent the occurrence of cyber crimes and implement appropriate protocols in dealing with any threat; which causes problems for users or national security at the individual and social level; Therefore, in the following, we will discuss the whole of this protection system and how it works.

Definition of cyber security

What is cyberspace security? This is the question of many people for whom cyber security remains interesting and yet unknown! In general, cyber security is information and a set of measures that covers all aspects of using the important internet space.

What is cyber security in simple words? In answer to this question, it should be said: this security is actually the protection of information and computer systems against threats and internet attacks in the modern world of communication.

Cyber ​​threats can include: hacker attacks, system intrusion, information theft, malware (viruses and malicious software) and other security breaches. Therefore, the general steps of cyber security are compiled and implemented as follows.

Security protocols: The use of security protocols such as: HTTPS is important for online communication with websites and services; Therefore, these protocols ensure that your communications are encrypted and secure.

Encryption: use encryption to protect personal and sensitive information such as: passwords and banking information that are important; As a result, by using encryption algorithms, your information is stored secretly.

Software updates: software updates such as the operating system, browser, etc. These updates often include security fixes that reduce possible weaknesses and vulnerabilities in your system by installing them.

Strong passwords: use strong and unique passwords for each account that contain a combination of upper and lower case letters, numbers and special symbols; Use different passwords for each account to prevent hacking.

Threat Awareness: Being aware of common cyber threats such as phishing, malware, and intrusions may help you take steps to prevent them; So always be careful of suspicious messages and links.

Regular backups: In case of problems like hacking or data loss, you can back up your data if necessary.

Security software: Using antivirus, firewall and anti-spyware software can prevent malicious attacks such as intrusion and installation of malware, these software help detect and block suspicious activities on your system.

Education and Awareness: Getting cybersecurity education and awareness of how to protect against threats can help you deal with cyber risks; Therefore, familiarity with the topics of encryption, phishing, penetration, etc. will help you to take appropriate measures against these threats.

In general, Cybersecurity to protect security information includes three main elements: systems, networks, and people, so measures are taken to protect systems and networks against virtual attacks, and training users to prevent cyber threats is also very important.

History of cyber security

The history of cyber security goes back to the early days of computer networks; At first, the main purpose of computer networks was to share resources and communicate between computers, and cyber security was not so important; But with the expansion of the Internet and the increase in the number of computers and services, the need to protect sensitive information against cyber threats has increased.

In the 1990s, with the expansion of the Internet and the widespread use of the Web, cyber threats increased significantly, and the Internet was used as a global network, and this led to new threats such as viruses, worms, Trojans, and DoS attacks. ) Led; During this period, cryptography and other security techniques were also being developed.

In the 2000s, with the rapid growth of e-commerce and the transfer of sensitive information through the Internet, the need for more cyber security and cyber attacks became more complex, and new techniques such as phishing, penetration, and identity theft appeared, and attacks on various systems, large networks, and even Governments also happened.

Nowadays, maintaining the security of information (cyber security) in cyberspace is one of the main priorities for organizations, governments and ordinary users. The development of new technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning has caused new challenges and threats in the field of cyber security.

Many famous cyber incidents in the history of attacks such as Wannacry and NotPetya in 2017 showed that security flaws in systems and networks can have serious consequences for organizations and communities; Since then, awareness and education about cyber security has been increasing and many organizations and individuals are trying to protect against cyber threats and take appropriate security measures.

The importance of cyber security for countries

Previously, we got acquainted with the essential role of this protection system in maintaining the privacy of users in cyberspace; These facilities are also very vital for organizations and companies; Because information theft can have serious consequences, including loss of customer trust, financial damage, and even damage to an organization’s history and reputation.

At the same time, cyber security allows us to use online services safely and securely; Therefore, by guaranteeing security in various processes such as: bank transactions, online shopping and secure communication, people can use internet services and online portals with more confidence.

Given that cyber threats are constantly changing and evolving; Continuous updating and awareness about new solutions and techniques plays an important role; Therefore, in the following, we mention some of the main benefits of cyber security at the individual and social level.

1-Maintaining personal information including bank account information, passwords, emails, and other sensitive audience information.

2-Protection of digital assets such as important files, images, videos, etc.

3-Protecting privacy by preventing unauthorized access to personal information due to the ever-increasing growth of technology and online space

4-Maintaining the security of organizations and institutions by improving cyber security, in the public and private sector, which leads to the protection of information and public trust of users.

5-Prevention of cyber crimes due to the increasing use of the Internet and digital systems

Types of cyber security

Although cyber security is implemented according to the type of crimes, type of attacks, etc. in each country according to its own algorithm and laws; But in general, this system uses a variety of security tricks, strategies and protection techniques in technical, intelligent, software and web-based ways with the aim of preventing the intrusion of unauthorized agents and preventing such criminals from accessing confidential data; to prevent any violation of the privacy of organizations and user pages; Therefore, the main types of cyber security to achieve these goals are as follows.

Network security and cyber security

It includes measures and methods used to protect computer networks and prevent unauthorized access, attackers and cyber spies; This includes the use of firewalls, authorized private networks, data encryption and detection of network attacks.

Cyber ​​security in applications

To protect software and computer programs against intrusion and harmful attacks, cyber security programs are used, which include: using security tests and using secure codes, penetration testing methods and training developers in the field of security.

data security

This type of cyber security focuses on sensitive and important data protection operations and deals with any intrusion, destruction, sealing, processing, reset and unauthorized change of data by foreign agents; Data security includes the use of data encryption, access management policies, regular backups, and data protection against theft and unauthorized access.

Physical security

The set of measures that are taken to protect the assets of an organization against cyber attacks; It is located in the area of ​​physical security; Therefore, the protection of physical equipment related to cyberspace such as: servers, routers, switches and network equipment, using physical access control systems, is done by this type of cyber security.

Cryptographic security

Information encryption is one of the main methods to protect data in cyber communication, and during this process, readable information is converted into a coded and unknown format; Therefore, in this type of cyber security, it is very important to use security methods and standards as a general strategy in the design and implementation of encryption systems.

Cyber ​​security with artificial intelligence: artificial intelligence supports a major part of cyber security and includes: quick detection of attacks, prevention of new attacks, quick response to threats, strengthening of the security system, etc.; This intelligent diagnosis and consequently fast and automatic actions will significantly affect the speed of action in responding and disrupting cyber attacks.

Cyber ​​security also includes educating and informing users about the threats of cyber groups and methods of prevention and response to this ambiguity; What do cyber groups mean? Or who are the cybers?

Cyber ​​group means a group of people or organizations that attack cyber systems and networks with the aim of carrying out activities related to information technology, communication (IT) and cyber space in violation of laws and restrictions.

The members of the cyber group can consist of hackers, computer criminals, hacktivists, cyber spies, etc., with the malicious purpose of collecting information, damaging economic and political structures, destroying online services, and threatening the personal and social security of cyberspace users.

Cyber ​​security roadmap and its goals

The cyber security roadmap is a comprehensive plan designed to achieve cyber security goals in an organization; This map includes strategies, policies, processes, technologies and security measures; which are used to deal with cyber threats and maintain the security of systems and data in an organization, and some of the goals of cyber security are:

1) maintaining the health and integrity of systems: the main goal of cyber security is to protect the information and communication technology (ICT) systems of organizations against cyber attacks and intrusions; This includes maintaining data integrity, preventing system destruction, and preventing unauthorized access to organization resources.

2) Risk management: cyber security must continuously identify possible risks and implement appropriate plans and solutions to reduce them; Identifying vulnerabilities, assessing risk, implementing security measures and continuity of processes are some of the measures of risk management.

3) Protection of data and information: One of the important goals of cyber security is the protection of sensitive data and information, for example: encryption, access management, regular backups, privacy protection, implementation of policies and requirements related to data protection. .

4) Training and awareness of employees: one of the important factors in cyber security is awareness and training; To make employees aware of cyber risks, prevention methods, safe behaviors and correct use of technologies.

5) Compliance with laws and regulations: Organizations must be in line with the laws and regulations related to cyber security that are determined by the government or relevant institutions; Also, comply with personal information protection laws, security standards, reporting and fulfilling legal requirements.

These are just a few of the goals of cyber security, and the roadmap program is designed and implemented for each organization according to its specific needs and conditions; This program should be continuously updated and evaluated to keep pace with changes in cyber threats and new technologies and help maintain the organization’s cyber security.

Types of cyber security threats

Cyber ​​security threats can arise from different sources and occur at different scales; According to the source of the attacker and its goals, there are also different categories of violations in the field of cyber security, which the examples below show the list of the most dangerous cyber attacks.

Hacker attacks

This type of attack includes unauthorized attempts to penetrate systems or networks with the aim of accessing sensitive information, destroying systems or stealing resources.

Denial of Service (DoS) attacks

By occupying system or network resources, this type of attack disrupts the main service for users and deprives them of access to the desired service.

Phishing attacks

In this type of attacks, the attacker encourages users to reveal sensitive information such as passwords or credit card numbers by sending fake emails or web pages.

Physical penetration

By infiltrating the organization’s physical space, the attacker can gain access to technical equipment, servers, routers and other devices and destroy or abuse them.

Internal penetration

These types of threats occur when employees or insiders with authorized access to systems and information attempt to steal information, destroy systems, or cause damage.

Software security holes

 when the software contains security weaknesses; An attacker can exploit them and gain unauthorized access or control to systems and data.

Vector attacks on protocols

One of the most common cyber security challenges is exploiting weaknesses and vulnerabilities in network protocols that lead to system intrusion or unauthorized access to information.

Remote attacks

Attempts to infiltrate systems and networks remotely without physical access to the devices and often through the Internet, establishing insecure connections, exploiting security weaknesses and network mechanisms.

These are just a few of the types of cyber security risks and new threats are emerging every day; To deal with these threats, a combination of technical solutions, policies, cyber security training are usually provided to users in the form of cyber security books, cyber security training videos and more specialized items that we mention below.

Cyber ​​security laws

Cyber ​​security laws are defined as a set of regulations and standards by governments, organizations and international organizations; These laws and regulations protect against cyber threats and control unauthorized behavior; Despite the different legislations that are common in every government; We mention some of the most important cyber laws.

Personal information protection laws: These laws usually include restrictions and requirements for organizations and service providers that must protect users’ personal information.

Cybercrime laws: These laws define what types of behaviors and actions are prohibited in cyberspace and determine legal penalties for such crimes; including hackers, internet fraud, identity theft, electronic fraud, etc.

Sensitive information protection rules: These rules are adopted to protect sensitive and confidential information such as: business information, financial information, etc. for encryption, limited access, monitoring and other sensitive security measures.

Laws of information technology rights: These laws are related to legal issues in the field of information and communication technology, which include: laws about intellectual property rights, publication, access to information, e-commerce laws, etc.

Laws and cyber crimes against national and social security vary somewhat between countries, and some organizations and companies also implement their own internal laws to protect cyber security.

Active cyber security companies in the world

Today, there are a large number of companies active in the field of cyber security protection and combating security threats, each of which operates in specific areas and trends of cyber security and has a well-equipped and intelligent system capable of identifying potential threats and managing cyber risk.

Some of these companies provide security services alone or in collaboration with other companies; They also provide actions such as: tracking cyber threats, penetration testing, security training, etc. and consider improving cyber security, which we will introduce some of the best in this industry.

Siemens company

is one of the top and famous companies in the field of cyber security; which provide cyber security protection solutions for companies and individual customers.

McAfee Co

McAfee is one of the leading companies in the field of cyber security that covers various security solutions, including antivirus, firewall and cloud security protection products.

Trend Micro Inc

Trend Micro is the largest cyber security company in Japan and one of the global leaders in the field of cyber security and provides antivirus, antispyware, intrusion prevention, vulnerability management, etc. software in the field of combating cyber threats.

Cisco Systems Inc

It is one of the largest information technology and computer network companies in the world, which operates in the field of network equipment such as cyber security, cloud, Internet of Things, e-commerce, etc., and the following are also considered to be the best active centers in the field of cyber security.



 (Palo Alto Networks)




 (Carbon Black)


 (Juniper Networks)

Cyber ​​security learning path

The type of work and the special sensitivity of the activity in the field of cyber security requires people who have the continuity and strong motivation to learn in this broad field and with practical skills and theoretical knowledge, the necessary expertise to protect the material and intellectual rights of virtual users at an individual level. , social and even national; Therefore, in order to learn cyber security, you can follow the technical and fundamental training path through the following steps.

Acquisition of concepts and principles of cyber security: At this stage, you should familiarize yourself with the basic concepts and principles of cyber security education, such as: cyber threats, security weaknesses, attack and defense methods, encryption, personal information protection, and the like.

Studying educational resources: for more detailed and complete learning, you can refer to reliable educational resources and various reference cyber security books in the field of information protection; Books such as: Finding and Exploiting Security Flaws, Hacking: The Art of Exploitation, Network Security: Private Communications in the Public World, Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms and Source Code in C Language and…

Attend cyber security courses: Some cyber security courses and workshops are a great way to get hands-on learning and hands-on experience with security matters. In these courses, you can learn about real security tools and techniques and apply security solutions with pre-designed exercises.

Taking exams and certifications: Taking exams and getting certifications related to cyber security develop your skills and talent; Therefore, you can participate in tests such as CompTIA Security+, Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) and similar.

Practical exercise and security test: To improve your skills, you can do practical exercises and related security tests; These exercises include building and testing dynamic sites, Capture The Flag (CTF) competitions, and practicing with accredited security organizations.

Cyber ​​security training videos: In this field, there are also valuable works for familiarization and training in the form of cyber security style videos that make it easier to understand and acquire this information, such as: Essential Knowledge Collection (2017), Information Security Management Certificate (CISM2019) and …

What are the fields and trends of cyber security?

Network security: In this trend, the security of computer networks, network equipment and protocols related to them is focused.

Program security: In this trend, the security of software, applications, websites, and identifying and fixing vulnerabilities and weak points in programs are discussed.

Operating System Security: This field covers the security of various operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and Macintosh, and focuses on security settings and dealing with threats related to operating systems.

Cloud security: With the increasing use of cloud services such as: Amazon Web Service and Microsoft Azure, cloud security is also very important.

Security of wireless networks: networks such as Wi-Fi take their security from this field, and experts identify and deal with security threats and deal with intrusion into wireless networks.

Security Analysis: Specialists in this field are proficient in analyzing threats, collecting and analyzing security data, and identifying weaknesses and vulnerabilities.

Cyber ​​security field: This branch teaches topics such as artificial intelligence, cryptography, database protection, behavioral analysis, network security, cyber risk management and related laws and regulations.

Incident security, information protection, and Internet of Things security are other trends in the dynamic and complex field of cyber security, and these fields and trends may be introduced in different universities and educational institutions with different names and details.

Currently, there is no cyberspace security major in high school as a separate academic major; But some high schools and technical and vocational schools include courses related to cyber space security in their educational programs; Also, courses related to computer science, networks, information security and information technology are offered in the form of fields such as: computer science and information and communication technology.

But academic programs in the field of cyber space security in the university include: security technology courses, cryptography basics, behavioral analysis, cyber risk management, use of security tools, network security, defense strategies and cyber attacks. Also, training programs can be developed based on international regulations and standards of security and industrial institutions in this field.

In addition to theoretical courses, the cyber security field in the university also supports practical and practical aspects, and these programs include: practical laboratories, supplementary projects, workshops and practical training in the field of cyber security, as well as providing internship opportunities in the cyber security industry.

How is cyber security in other countries?

The state of cyber security in each country depends on various factors, such as: policies and laws related to cyber security, technical capabilities, training and awareness of users, the type of threats and cyber attacks, etc.; Therefore, each government, according to its own security strategies, adopts special protocols to deal with cyber attacks.

Cyber ​​security of the United States of America: The United States has one of the most advanced cyber security structures in the world; cyber security in the United States consists of security teams and organizations such as the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Cyber ​​Security and Critical Infrastructure Agency (CISA) to deal with has formed with cyber threats.

Israel’s cyber security: Israel’s cyber security level is relatively strong and advanced and has developed advanced systems and equipment to combat cyber threats; Also, due to the geographical location of this country and Israel’s need to protect its national security against cyber threats, this country is considered one of the world leaders in the field of cyber security.

British cyber security: the state of British cyber security has also improved to a great extent and the British government has developed specific policies and laws to deal with cyber threats; Cyber ​​security poles in the UK are also responsible for planning, coordinating and responding to cyber threats.

The most dangerous cyber attacks that have ever occurred in the world

In the cyber field, there have been many attacks that have been very dangerous and effective; But determining cyber security risks can be a relative issue and depends on various factors such as: its effects, destination, size and time of the attack.

Rantum One attacks: In 2017, WannaCry attacks spread rapidly around the world using the virus encryption software; These attacks affected Windows operating systems and shut down thousands of organizations in more than 150 countries.

Petya attacks: Petya attacks in 2017, which encrypted and disabled computers by using security weaknesses in the Windows operating system; These attacks also affected all over the world and made many organizations face big security problems.

DDoS attacks: This attack is known as one of the most dangerous cyber attacks, and this type of attack is carried out at certain times and by using weak points of systems; Systems that can act aggressively are connected to each other through computer networks, and each of these systems can steal information from each other or cause their malfunctions.

Cyber ​​security services and its application in different industries

Hospital cyber security: In the healthcare sector, cyber security is important for protecting sensitive medical data, medical systems, smart medical equipment and protecting the privacy of hospitals and patients, and includes: monitoring and protecting medical systems, encryption of medical information and network security. It is a hospital.

Car cyber security: In the car industry, cyber security is very important for smart cars connected to the Internet; Therefore, the cyber security services of this industry include: protection of automatic driving systems, prevention of attacks on car cameras, navigation systems and protection of drivers’ personal information.

Industrial automation cyber security: In this industry, cyber security plays a role in protecting industrial networks, control systems and sensitive data; Monitoring and defense against cyber threats, system penetration testing, cyber risk management, etc. are some of the security processes in this field.

Passive defense cyber security: a set of actions to protect national resources and assets against cyber attacks and includes: examination, analysis, prediction and mechanisms designed to protect systems, networks, data and information related to an institution, organization or protect the country against cyber attacks.

Drone cyber security: Drone cyber security includes the protection of drone control systems, their processes and communications against cyber attacks. This security is done by analyzing and assessing security risk, identifying vulnerabilities, preventing unauthorized access, monitoring network traffic, etc.

Children’s cyber security: educating and informing children about the concept of cyber threats and ways to manage and prevent them, including: teaching basic principles, monitoring and supervision, privacy protection, online disasters, responsible use of communication technologies.

These are just a few areas of cyber security services in different industries; Therefore, nowadays, due to the increasing growth of cyber threats, the need for cyber security has become more important in all industries and sectors;

Introduction of several books in the field of cyber security

Cyber ​​rules book

The Art of Deception

Hacking The Art of Exploitation

The Web Application Hacker’s Handbook

 Cybersecurity The Beginner’s Guide

Summary of what cyber security is

Cyber ​​security is a very vital and important issue that has received special attention in today’s world, and with the advancement of technology and communication, cyber attacks have also increased greatly, which sometimes have serious consequences for individuals and organizations. Therefore, in order to achieve cyber security, one should pay attention to issues related to the security of data, networks, software, etc.; Protecting confidential and important resources against unauthorized access and hackers, using strong encryption, updating security systems, training employees in the field of cyber security, etc. are some of the protective measures to prevent and deal with cyber attacks.

In general, cyber security requires various and numerous methods and approaches, which are different depending on the type of organization, work environment and individual needs, and the use of appropriate security methods, sufficient knowledge and training, cooperation with experts and the use of modern tools can protect Help against cyber threats and information security.

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