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Histoy of photoshop software


Without any doubt, Photoshop is the most popular and powerful photo editing software in the world.  In such a way that many Photoshop users today cannot imagine the world without using this program.  The history of Photoshop is very readable.  It is interesting to know that Photoshop has been trying to reach this position for twenty five years!

 Although Photoshop is a very powerful and developed software today, it was not like this from birth!  If you go back 25 years, Photoshop didn’t even exist, and when it did, it was very different from the powerful program we know and love today.

Today, amateurs and graphic design professionals use Photoshop to edit a simple photo to design various websites. This software has really changed the world of photography and design, but we must not forget that behind this success, there are 25 years of continuous effort and development. In the rest of this article, we will read the history of Photoshop, discuss how Photoshop reached this shining point, and examine what improvements each version has made over the previous version.

You probably guess that a complete, comprehensive and complex software such as Photoshop is the result of the efforts of a group of experts who have worked tirelessly for years, but if you guessed that, you are wrong! Although these days many people in the Adobe company are trying to develop this software and produce newer versions, but the original Photoshop was created by only two people (two brothers with a little help from their father).

1989: Adobe Photoshop 0.87

In March 1989, the second version of Photoshop was created. This was the same version that Barneyscan company bought two hundred copies of and sold under the name Barneyscan XP. This was the first time that an image editing software was made available to the public. Photoshop 0.87 ran only on Macintosh computers, and there was no Windows version until late 1992.

1993: Adobe Photoshop 2.5

It was officially released in November 1992, about 17 months after Photoshop 2.0 was released. Photoshop 2.5 was a notable release because it was the first software released for both Mac and Windows. This software had to be completely rewritten for the Windows operating system, which delayed its release for a while. Because the first version of Windows had a memory bug, Adobe was forced to release Photoshop 2.5.1 a few months later, and then Mark Hamburg, one of the engineers who worked on the software, contacted Windows users who They had prepared version 2.5, he suggested version 2.5.1 to them. Version 2.5 added new features to Photoshop. This was the first version of Photoshop with 16-bit per channel support. In this version, the filters were equipped with several submenus. Photoshop 2.5 was one of the first examples of cross-platform software (that is, it was released for Windows and Mac).

1995: Adobe Photoshop 3.0

Adobe Photoshop 3.0 was released in September 1994 and in November 1994 for Mac and Windows respectively. It was version 3.0 that brought one of the most important features of Photoshop to the software; Layers. Thomas Knoll was responsible for introducing layers, and with this, he really revolutionized image editing. Before Photoshop 3.0, users had to save different versions of their designs as completely separate files and open them in Photoshop when needed. The feature of layers was a way for designers to get rid of this repetitive and annoying work! Layers are different parts of images or projects that are put together, combined to form the final design. The feature of layers allows the designer to manipulate different parts of the design or image separately without affecting other parts. For example, an advertising image of a watch may be made of two layers; Clock photo layer and background layer. Both layers can be edited separately. Layers are a great feature and are still used in newer versions of Photoshop. Photoshop 3.0 was the first version of Photoshop in which both Windows and Macintosh versions of the software had no problems.

2000: Adobe Photoshop 6.0

Photoshop 6.0 was released in September 2000, about twenty months after Photoshop 5.5 was released. Photoshop 6.0 was a major release that included many new features and facilities such as Vector Shape and the Liquify filter. Vector Shape was designed to allow designers to easily draw vectors and convert them to Bitmap images. A custom palette was also added that allowed users to use vector shapes. The Add Text tool was also updated, so that Photoshop users could add text directly to an image. Photoshop 6.0 also introduced Blending Options for layers. In this version, the Crop tool and the Marque tool were separated and were shown as two separate options in the Photoshop toolbar. Adobe Photoshop 6.0 has an updated user interface that aims to be easier to use than ever.

2005: Adobe Photoshop CS2

It was released in April 2005, eighteen months after the original release of Photoshop CS. Many new features, filters and tools were introduced in Photoshop CS2. Due to its popularity, Adobe brought the Red Eye Remover tool from Adobe Photoshop Elements into CS2. In this version, it was also possible to select several layers together. The Destination Point tool was also introduced in CS2, which made it possible to display perspective images. Spot Healing Brush, Image Warp and Lens Correction filter along with Smart Sharpen and Smart Objects have also been added. Converting a layer to Smart Objects helps you resize objects and images multiple times while working without losing quality. The user interface was redesigned for CS2, but it caused dissatisfaction among users, because everyone was used to the user interface of the previous version. In CS2, Adobe decided to merge the Gradient and Paint Bucket tools and put both into one icon in the toolbar. This was one of the cases that brought protests from Photoshop users. Because everyone had to search the Photoshop toolbar for a while to find the Gradient tool.

2008: Adobe Photoshop CS4

It was released in October 2008, about eighteen months after Photoshop CS3 was released in 2007. The most important thing in CS4 is the improvements that happened in the field of zoom. In previous versions of Photoshop, the zooming time was a bit long and there was a delay of a few seconds, but in CS4 it was almost instant. There were many changes to the CS4 user interface, and overall, it was much easier to work with. Document tabs helped make it easier for users to work on multiple documents (the way the tabs were arranged was very similar to web browser tabs). Adobe added a number of new features to CS4. including masks and a group of adjustment layers. Also, the workspace was updated and the file management system appeared with Adobe Bridge CS4. Adobe CS4 was the first version of Photoshop to support Windows (Vista) 64-bit version separately.

2013: Adobe Photoshop CC

Photoshop CC was released in June 2013, about thirteen months after Photoshop CS6 was released. Adobe Photoshop CC is considered a new era for this program as it moved from Creative Suite and started a new journey under the name Creative Cloud CC. In previous versions of Photoshop (in the Creative Suite series), users paid a fixed fee for the software, but Photoshop CC introduced a subscription-based pricing model that allows users to access the software without having to May they pay a large initial fee. Using Photoshop CC, users can automatically upload their works and graphic designs to Behance.com. Adobe Photoshop CC also introduced a number of new features, including Camera Shake Reduction, which made it very quick and easy for users to restore sharpness to blurry images. In this version, the Smart Sharpen function was created and Smart Upsampling was added, with the help of which Photoshop artists print low-resolution images with acceptable quality. Photoshop CC supports Camera RAW 8. Adobe Photoshop CC was released about 25 years after the creation of Photoshop 0.63.

2015: Adobe Photoshop CC

Photoshop CC 2015 was released on June 15, 2015. Adobe added many innovative features such as Adobe Stock, which is a library of custom images. In the old versions of Photoshop, through the Layer Style panel, we could only apply one shadow on each layer, but in CC 2015, this approach has changed and you can add up to 10 types of shadows or other styles to a layer. A form of file storage for the web was also added to CC 2014. The user interface of this version of Photoshop was designed much more integrated than the previous versions. With this version of Photoshop, the user could design faster on touch devices such as Microsoft Surface Pro. The programming of Photoshop cc 2015 was named after Thomas and John Knoll (one of the original creators of Photoshop).

2018: Adobe Photoshop CC

Photoshop CC 2018 was released on October 18, 2017. In this version, fundamental and important changes are observed in the brush system, which allows the user to save properties such as color and transparency for each brush. The Curvature Pen tool, which allows you to quickly create curved paths, has been added to this version. It should be mentioned that this tool works similar to Pen in Illustrator and has great performance. PNG compression, increasing the maximum magnification, more advanced facial recognition algorithm and improving the performance of selection tools, colors, layer masks and filters are other advantages of this version of Photoshop. The name White Lion is chosen for Photoshop CC 2018 coding

2019: Adobe Photoshop CC

Photoshop CC 2019 provided unique and useful features to its users. Let’s review 3 of the best tools and features of this version:

1. Multiple Undo and Redo As you know,

Ctrl-Z or Command-Z takes you to a previous move in Photoshop (Undo), while Ctrl-Shift-Z or Command-Shift-Z takes you to your next move (Redo). ). In this version of Photoshop, the history of subsequent movements is not deleted.

2. Preview the status or Blend Mode of the layers

You must have always doubted which Blend Mode to apply on your desired layer. The good news is that from now on you can see the preview of each mode on the desired layer before applying it.

3. Mathematical operations

From now on, like Illustrator and InDesign, Photoshop can perform simple math operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. In the end, it should be mentioned that the name of the programming system that has been set for the latest version of Photoshop, namely cc 2019, is B Winston.

2020:Adobe Photoshop

The newest and most widely used version of Photoshop is Photoshop 2020. In this version of Photoshop, we saw effective and significant changes, some of which we mention: Ability to quickly close documents that are not needed Improved presets and the possibility to change them with one click The object selection tool is powered by Adobe’s artificial intelligence engine, “Sensei”. The existence of this tool has led to easy, fast and very accurate selection of the subject with just one click. More advanced Wrap Convert layer to smart object Custom Content-Aware Fill Extensive changes in the Properties panel Added focal point adjustment button to Lens Blur filter Ability to import image from iPhone or iPad

Red Dead Redemption 2


Red Dead Redemption 2 (abbreviated as: RDR2) is a 2018 action-adventure video game developed and published by Rockstar Games. This game is the third version of the Red Dead series and is the predecessor of Red Dead Redemption in 2010. Red Dead Redemption 2 was nominated in eight categories at the 2018 Game Awards and was able to win four awards, including best music and storytelling. The story of Red Dead Redemption 2 covers the events before the first version of this game. The game takes place in 1899 and narrates the story of one of the outlaw groups from the Wild West called the Wonder Lind group, and the player plays the role of one of the members of this gang named Arthur Morgan and then John Marston.

The game received very high scores on Metacritic and other sites, achieving Metacritic 97 on Xbox One and PlayStation 4, and Metacritic 93 on Microsoft Windows due to its excellent details, graphics, and storytelling. Also, this game is the 8th best-selling game in history with 57 million copies sold.

Online section

This game has an online section that was released on the 11th of Azar 1400. You must purchase separately to experience this game. This is the first time that Rockstar has released the online part of its game separately. Many fans are unhappy with this version due to lack of good game support and poor updates.

Game process

Red Dead Redemption 2 is an open world action-adventure video game with a western theme. The process of playing the game is in the third person format and sometimes in the first person format with the help of the virtual camera system. The story takes place in 1899 and in the Midwestern states of America and the southern states of America. The game can be played in single player or online multiplayer format, the second one is also published separately under the title of Red Dead Online. Compared to Red Dead Redemption, the combat system of the game has been redesigned and significant mechanics have been added to it, which includes hand-to-hand combat based on double attack or using a bow. Unexplored parts of the game form the largest part of the game world, which mainly contains diverse landscapes with passing travelers. Bandits, wildlife, human habitat and urban areas including villas and private mansions are other prominent and diverse points. Horses are different forms of transportation, of which there are different breeds in the game. To use the horses, the player must first tame them and then feed and treat them. More use of a particular horse provides a bonding or fusion process between rider and rider that can be enhanced by regular grooming and feeding. In the process of exploring the game, you can also use Dilijan and the train to travel. The player can commit robbery by threatening and scaring the driver or the passengers of the train and Delijan.

During the tour, the player may encounter requests for help from others, who will be grateful if he decides to help, and can give a reward. Table knife game, dominoes, blackjack and poker are among other optional activities and entertainments of the player. One of the other most important components of the game is the process of hunting and the hunter, who plays a major role in providing food, income or making some equipment. Choosing the right weapon has a direct effect on the quality of the hunting process, and observing the important factors has a significant impact on the quality of the meat and skin of the hunt and ultimately their value. The player can immediately skin the animal or put it on the back of a horse and carry it, which will rot over time and its value will decrease. Also, the player can steal from different places; such as shops, trains, carriages and farm houses. It should be said that General Store is considered the best store for bandits. Also, the player can throw the driver of a train out of the window of the locomotive room and take control of the train.

The game focuses quite heavily on the player’s choices to advance the story and mission. There are moments in the game that allow for additional/side missions. The main character has the ability to communicate with the secondary characters of the story, which can be friendly or aggressive depending on the dialogues. At the same time, he is able to kill others and then take possession of their dead bodies as booty. The game implements an intelligent honor system by measuring the player’s perception of performance from a moral point of view. Positive moral actions such as helping strangers, following the rules, etc. increase the honor and honor of the player, and in return, performing negative actions such as stealing, harming the innocent, reduces the honor and thus the honor of the player. The story has a direct effect on the player’s level of honor. Most conversations, deals, and interactions differ based on the level of honor. Accessing a higher level of honor will have many benefits for the player, the most important of which is getting special discounts when making purchases from various stores. A low level of honor is also useful in its own way; Because the player gets more loot most of the time when looting and looting the dead and corpses.

The story of the game

The story of the game revolves around a criminal group called Van der Linde gang. Initially, the group consisted of three people: Dutch van der Linde, leader and founder of the group, Hosea Matthews, advisor and mentor of the group, and Arthur Morgan, Dutch’s closest friend and confidant. According to the members of the group, Arthur was the most skilled and the best shooter among them, and Dutch always called him the best person among them. Gradually, the group grew and new members such as John Marston, Bill Williamson, Xavier Scuella and… became its members. In the meantime, two of the members, John Marston and Abigail, become interested in each other, the result of which is a boy named Jack Marston.

The game takes place in 1899, when the era of the wild west, musketeers and outlaws is coming to an end, and the American government seeks to create a new civilization in this land. At this time, the Van der Linde gang is engaged in robbery for their ambitious goals, but their biggest plan, which is to rob a bank in Blackwater City, is met with a hard failure, and the group is forced to leave the money and run away. This is where the story of Red Dead Redemption 2 begins.

Dutch van der Linde’s gang had to flee from Blackwater after a failed robbery. Dutch van der Linde realized that in order to survive, he and his group had to earn money. The main character of this game is Arthur Morgan, who the player takes control of. After a conflict with the O’Driscolls’ group, which is a rival of the Van der Linde group, they find a train robbery plan in their hideout. Along with Arthur, Bill Williamson, Micah Bell, Xavier Scuella, John Marston and Lenny Summers, Dutch steals a train belonging to Lovitis Cornwall and gets a lot of money, and Dutch promises the gang that this will be their last bloody battle. Meanwhile, the Pinkerton National Intelligence Agency is chasing Dutch and his gang because of the group’s bad record of crime and law-breaking. A little later, Lovitis Cornwall identified the location of the group and made them flee with a sudden attack. The Dutch van der Linde group, continuing their ambitions, commits a big robbery again, and this time by attacking the bank in Valentine city, they manage to get some money and also rebuild their camp in Rhodes city.

In the city of Rhodes, Dutch and Arthur try to sign a contract with the elders of the city, including the Gray and Braithwaite families, to work for them and receive money from them in return, and to strengthen their relationship, but since the two families with each other are enemies, Dutch suggests that these relationships be secret with both families at the same time, so that the group benefits from both families. But it doesn’t take long for their plan to be revealed and both families declare war on the group. Sheriff Gray kills Sean Maguire, a member of the Dutch gang, in an attack in Rhodes, and Braithwaite steals John Marston’s son, Jack. At first, with the help of Micah Bell (another member), Arthur survives the Grays’ attack on the city, and Arthur kills Sheriff Gray. On the other hand, the case of Jack’s theft causes all Dutch van der Linde members to attack the Braithwaite mansion and kill them all in a bloody and attractive battle and take over the mansion. But John’s son was not there. Catherine Braithwaite, the head of the family, forces Dutch to tell them that she delivered Jack to an Italian named Angelo Bronte in St. Denis. Dutch and Arthur kill Catherine Braithwaite’s children, and the group burns down Braithwaite’s mansion. Catherine Braithwaite, who has lost everything, goes to the burning mansion and commits suicide. After that, Dutch and the rest of the gang come across Colonel Milton (the Pinkertons’ intelligence officer) who are having a conversation. He gives them a warning, but Dutch ignores it and tells him we’ll be out of here soon.

Dutch, Arthur and John go to Angelo Bronte, one of the most influential people in the city of St. Denis, to retrieve Jack. Not only does Angelo take good care of John’s son, but he welcomes the Dutch van der Linde gang with a lavish party. In order to earn more money, Dutch tries to negotiate with Angelo Bronte to find a suitable place for armed robbery, which Angelo Bronte declares that the poker room and St. Denis post office are among the most profitable places for robbery. First, Arthur Morgan and Xavier Scuella fraudulently enter the poker room and break into it. Then they go to the post office, but not only the money is not found there, but the police soon arrive and foil their robbery plan. Dutch, who believes that the police were already there, considers this a betrayal on Angelo’s part, attacks Angelo’s beach house with a boat at night with his group, and after a fight with Brante’s security guard, kidnaps him and throws him into the water. They leave him at the place of his presence.

Game development process

The game’s main studio, Rockstar San Diego, had the game’s overview until mid-2011. When the studio realized that the employees of different departments did not see the need for intensive work, it concentrated all its studios into one big team to develop the game among 1,600 people. Facilitate the employee involved in the project. In total, more than 2,000 people participated in the development of this game. Rockstar’s interactive department assistant, Dan Heusser, drew inspiration from a collection of films and literature when writing the story, although he avoided contemporary works to avoid being accused of stealing ideas. . The production team was not entirely inspired by a specific film or art collection, as real locations were also used. The citizens in the game show the contrast between the rich and the poor very well.

Red Dead Redemption 2 recording sessions began in 2013. Rockstar was interested in having a variety of personalities in Wonder Lind. The writers of the story pay special attention to the past events and adventures of each character and examine their lives before joining the group as well as the reasons for their persistence. Several characters were removed during the development of the game because their characters could not be added to the narrative. Unlike the previous game Rockstar Grand Theft Auto 5, which made three main characters controllable, the developer decided to have only one controllable main character in Red Dead to show how the events affect the main character’s personality and mood.

Woody Jackson, who had worked on the score for Grand Theft Auto 5, was re-appointed to contribute to the project and was given the original score for the game’s score. Red Dead Redemption 2 has three different music sections. The first part, known as the narration part, is heard during the game’s story missions. The second part is the interactive part and it is heard by the listener (player) when he is browsing and roaming alone or multiplayer in the game world. The third part is the environmental part, which includes the songs of the song, the camp, and also the songs that the main character plays in the game world. The game music changes and reacts according to the main character’s decisions. For this purpose, Jackson purchased various instruments from music mixing teams. In total, more than 110 musicians and musicians worked on the soundtrack of this game. Acclaimed singer and musician Daniel Lanois produced the game’s original songs, collaborating with other artists including D’Angelo, Willie Nelson, Rhiannon Giddens, and Josh Homme.

Red Dead Redemption tutorial

The world of Red Dead Redemption 2 is so vast, deep and detailed that there are many things to do in it other than going through the main stages. From raiding shops, extorting people and handing over criminals to the law enforcement officer to help different members of the camp, help ordinary people and find secrets hidden in the corners of the Wild West. However, one of the most interesting and important activities that play an essential role in the gameplay is hunting. You must have realized with the game experience that hunting is not only a way to provide food for you and the camp members. The animals you get through hunting are considered among your valuable assets due to their many uses, but how to make the best use of our hunts or where to find valuable game animals and finally how to have a perfect hunt And to have a professional, these are questions that we will answer all of them in detail in this article from the Red Dead Redemption 2 tutorial series.

Some great tips and details about this game

1. Arthur’s facial hair grows over time and depending on how much it grows, you can style it; Just like the real world!

2. Arthur can modify his face in different places. One of these places is his tent, which allows you to modify different parts of his face, such as his cheeks, the nape of his neck, and his chin.

3. Arthur cannot change the general state of his hair on his own, and he must go to a hairdresser in the city or use a hair styling cream.

4. Rockstar Studio created a separate physics for Arthur’s beard so that they move according to the volume and weight of the hair on his face.

5. If you don’t rest and eat enough, Arthur will get tired and his health will decrease over time.

6. Considering the amount of food that Arthur eats, you can easily see this character getting fat or thin.

7. People in your group (in-game NPCs) like you have the ability to find dead or killed people to pick their stuff; So if you don’t move in time, they will loot all the ammunition, money and consumable items.

8. Arthur’s helmet falls off his head during hand-to-hand combat or with a firearm on impact.

9. The sheriffs of the city have high artificial intelligence and when fighting one-on-one, they first wait until the fight is over and then disperse all the people.

10. You can make a new hat from the skins of raccoons and foxes.

11. In the Red Dead Redemption 2 game, clothing customization has been paid a lot of attention, so you even have the option to choose whether your pants go inside the boots or outside them; Is your sleeve folded or not!

12. Your weapons can get muddy or dirty over time; When you wet them to clean, you should wipe them with a cloth for best performance.

13. Your horse will get dirty and muddy just like your gun and when moving, they will be slow and you will need to use a brush to clean them. Also, your horse’s body is cleaned by river water and rain water.

14. The more you take care of your horse and feed him, the more he will get used to you and stay close to you.

15. Depending on the gender of the horse, Arthur uses the appropriate pronoun (He/She in English) when talking to his horse or trying to calm it down.

16. People around you react to your appearance; For example, when you are covered in mud or blood, they talk bad to you and tease you, but if you are tidy, you will be admired by them.

17. All nature materials in the game have their own special and unique physics and graphics. The snow on your clothes is slowly melting, the mud on your clothes is getting old and the blood is drying on your clothes.

18. When you go with your group to a horseback riding location, you can determine which direction you will ride your horse in the group.

19. You cannot ride other people’s horses. For example, when you get too close to a Dutch horse, it will kick you.

20. Apart from the soothing songs of the game, 192 different pieces of music have been considered for this game, with Woody Jackson in charge of making the music for Red Dead Redemption 2.

Red Dead Redemption game tutorial

How to hunt?

Hunting in the game may not seem like such a difficult task. When you’re galloping with your horse, you see a deer on the side of the road, you unholster your gun and shoot at the poor deer until it’s dead. Yes, this is also called hunting, but is this kind of hunting in the game worth it? Certainly, there would be no need for such an article. So, if you want to learn the right way of hunting and get the highest possible benefit from your hunts, it is better to remember the points mentioned in this section.

1. Find the animals

In the world of Red Dead Redemption 2, there are almost 200 species of animals, and for that reason, every time you leave the city or camp you are in, you will definitely encounter different species and there will always be something to hunt. . The best way to start hunting is to get on your horse and ride at a leisurely pace through the surrounding pastures or woods to let the animals near you show themselves without running away. Although it seems a simple way, but be sure that this is the most effective step to start hunting and finding animals. The positive thing here is that in the areas where a species of animal is more available, a symbol of it is recorded on Arthur’s map to make your job easier to find the hunt you want.

There are two different ways to identify animals. First, get close enough to them and hold the camera on them for a few seconds until the Study option appears in the bottom right corner, but most animals won’t stand near you and run away when they see you. For this reason, it is better to hold your hunting camera without getting off the horse and wait for the Study sign to appear by zooming in on the animals. The interesting thing is that when you use your camera, even if nothing is visible on the camera, it will be possible to identify animals and the option to study more on the desired species will be displayed, which will be activated by pressing the R1 or RB key.

Apart from this, there are more exciting ways to attract animals to you. By visiting city stores or general stores, you can buy special baits to attract your prey to a specific spot. Of course, you can make these baits yourself through the crafting system, but to be honest, there are two problems with these baits. Firstly, the time you have to wait is a bit long, and secondly, these baits can attract any animal to itself, so it is possible that another animal will move towards this bait instead of the species you are trying to hunt. Another thing that will help you while hunting is a substance called Cover Scent Lotion, which makes your scent imperceptible to animals. If you look closely at Arthur’s path in Eagle Eye mode, you’ll see a blue halo that actually represents Arthur’s scent. You can also purchase this material through general stores.

2. Study of animals

Studying animals in general will add useful information about them to your encyclopedia, which can definitely help you make the right hunt for any animal. One of these important pieces of information is the best weapon to kill the beast, which will definitely have a direct impact on the material value of your hunt. Besides this, what makes the study even more important is that the species is known and some of its characteristics, such as its skin value, can be identified through your hunting camera either in normal mode or in Eagle Eye mode. . To study animals, in addition to the two methods mentioned above, you can study its characteristics and information by aiming a gun at one of the species or in a simpler way by hunting one of them.

3. chasing animals

First of all, in order to chase animals, you should always get off your horse and follow your prey with slow steps, but one of the things that will always help you in this field is the eagle eye posture, which not only sees the animals in the environment with A brighter color not only highlights for you, but also shows the path taken by these creatures so that you can follow your prey well. Besides this, if you have read the information of the species you are looking for in advance, you can also see the skin value and species type in Eagle Eye mode. To activate Eagle Eye, simply press both of your analogs in at the same time to make the game go into slow motion and reveal footprints.

4. hunting animals

Hunting animals, which is your last step, will require a little more precision. First of all, try to use its own special weapon to hunt each animal, and if you don’t have the necessary information, make sure to prioritize shooting. It is true that the way you hunt does not affect the animal’s stars more or less, but hunting with the wrong weapon can reduce the value of the animal materially or the benefit you get from it. The right weapon is usually determined based on the size of the beast, and there are 5 different sizes in the game, and the best weapon for each is as follows:

>For very small animals such as squirrels or frogs, it is better to use a slingshot and especially small arrows called Small Game Arrows, which can be obtained through the crafting system.

While hunting small animals such as rabbits or geese, it is better to use a type of rifle called Varmint Rifle, which can be purchased from gun shops in the city.

>There are many options for hunting medium-sized animals, such as water dogs or coyotes. >An archery, throwing knife, repeater gun, rifle, and sniper rifle can all be good tools, but the best option is the repeater.

> Taking down larger animals is a bit more difficult, but still using a slingshot, rifle, and sniper rifle are among the available options. If you are using a slingshot, it is better to go for poison arrows, but remember that the easiest option for this category is the rifle.

>Finally, it’s time for giant animals like bears, the best way to kill them is to use a sniper rifle or a slingshot with upgraded arrows.

Of course, I should also mention that for medium or large animals, you can also use Arthur’s lasso, which will suffocate the animal without any shots, and in a way, it can be considered the cleanest type of hunting. The best places to shoot are the neck and the head of the animal, which will do the job on the spot, but if your prey is bent in the pastures in such a way that it is impossible to see, in this case you can call him by pressing the square or X button. to raise his head for a few moments. Just be aware that making too much noise will scare the animals and run away, so try to make the most of your opportunities.

Knowing these, the question that arises is where you should determine the size of the animals. For this, the best method is to experience and observe what Arthur does with animal carcasses. If Arthur puts the animal in his bag after killing it, that animal belongs to the first category. If he hangs it on one side of his horse after hunting, it definitely belongs to the second category. Medium and large animals are both placed on the back of the horse, and for this reason, their identification can be understood only by comparing their sizes. Finally, it is the turn of the giant creatures, which, in addition to their large size, the best way to identify them is that Arthur cannot carry the meat of this group of animals with him at all, and only takes the skin with him and throws it on his horse’s back.

An important point regarding Master Hunter Challenge 2:

In order to gradually become a skilled hunter in the game, the creators have considered challenges in this section called Mr. Hunter, in which you must meet the demands of each challenge. In the second part of this challenge, the game asks you to get the skins of three rabbits with a three-star value, which doesn’t seem too difficult, but the point is that the game suggests you use a slingshot to hunt rabbits, in While the only weapon that can give you the highest quality hide while hunting rabbits is the Varmint Rifle. So, after you find three.

What to do with our catches?

Now that you got the best hunts with all this hard work and Arthur became one of the skilled hunters of the Wild West, it’s time to see what can be done with these valuable skins and creatures. The game offers you different options, which we will discuss in order.

The first and easiest option is to eat animal meat. You can cook and eat the meat of the animals you have hunted by making a camp anywhere.

The next solution is to sell these hunts to butchers, which you can find in every city. Pay attention that the whole body of an animal will always be worth more than just its skin. Also, the number of skin stars is also involved in the money you earn. Another important point that may be of great help to you is that selling animals that are rare in some places will make you more money. For this reason, if you hunt an animal near one city, it is better to sell it in another city and in a place where the species in question is considered rare. For example, moose deer, which are the largest type of deer, are considered very rare species in the city of Saint-Denis, and therefore they are highly valued.

If you think your Arthur shouldn’t mind his own pocket too much, then it’s better to take your hunting to the camp and donate it to the only butcher you know, Pearson. The meat of the animals you donate increases the camp’s food stat, and by collecting some skins, you can upgrade tents and other camp equipment.

Finally, if you are looking for a specific item, you can take your hunts to the Fence so that they can make special items for you through these skins that cannot be found elsewhere. Of course, note that the possibility of dealing with thugs will be created after completing The Spines of America stage in the second chapter of the game.

After catching legendary fish, take them to the post office and sell them quickly before they spoil. Note that legendary fish, like legendary animals, can only be caught once.

How to hunt legendary animals?

Despite all the things we have mentioned so far to increase the quality of the hunt, the most valuable creatures and hunts in the world of Red Dead Redemption 2 are the legendary creatures, of which there are a total of 16, of which 10 are freely available after the first chapter. are, but the rest are released during Mr. Hunter’s stages or challenges.

The Legendary Grizzly Bear is released by entering the Exit Pursued By a Bruised Ego stage in Chapter 2.

The legendary Bullgator alligator becomes available after completing the Country Pursuits stage in Chapter 4.

The legendary Giagaro panther can be hunted upon reaching rank 9 in Mr. Hunter.

The Mountain Lion, Pronghorn Deer, and Legendary Buffalo will all be accessible in the game world by completing the sixth chapter of the game.

In addition to the fact that you make a lot of money from selling the skins of legendary animals, the items obtained from crafting them are very rare; Especially if you take them to thrift stores and the black market, you can snag some tempting accessories. However, hunting these types of creatures is not so easy and you need to make preparations before starting.

Necessary preparations for hunting legendary creatures:

The hunting of this group of animals will be different from normal hunting. First of all, if the creature in question is a predator, it is definitely considered a great threat to your life and you should try to finish the work of the animal before you yourself become a prey. The positive thing here is that the way you hunt for legendary beasts has no effect on the final quality of the hunt and its value, and for that reason you are free to destroy the poor animals with any method, from throwing dynamite to volleying. Once again, own a valuable and rare skin. However, you should still take a look at your abilities and items before going for one of the legendaries.

First of all, make sure to fill up the Dead Eye ability bar to the end so that you can make good use of this ability to hit the beast in an emergency situation where you are under attack by the beast. It’s also better to get rank 4 in the Dead Eye feature, so that when you use it, it will show you which living body parts you can shoot at to cause significant damage. In addition, be sure to hunt legendary with powerful weapons such as shotguns, sniper rifles or archery with upgraded and toxic arrows to complete the job faster. Finally, be sure to remember that you can hunt legendary beasts only once, so after hunting without any feet, when you remove the skin and other useful organs of the beast, and if you intend to craft special items, quickly go to Move towards the fences. Of course, if you kill a legendary animal but do not loot it, the items that can be obtained through this hunt will be added to the menu of vendors known as Trapper in the game.

Other things that you should observe are related to the fullness of stamina and health bars. Also, always remember to carry all the necessary weapons with you before dismounting from your horse, and make sure you have enough space in your horse to be able to carry all the animal’s painful organs with you. Remember that legendary beasts are always larger than their counterparts and are usually white in color. Always to hunt legendaries, you should follow the path they have taken with the help of Eagle Eye ability to finally reach the place where the creature is located and pay attention to follow this path in a crouched and calm position. If you die while killing a legendary beast, you will respawn nearby, but the creature may have run away a bit further away. Also, try not to engage with other beasts near the location of the legendary beasts, because it will cause the legendary’s movement path to disappear for a while.

How to fish?

In addition to hunting animals on land, Red Dead Redemption 2 also allows fishing in different rivers and seas, which is one of the attractive activities of the game. In order for the possibility of fishing to be available to you, you must first have passed the A Fisher Of Men stage of the second chapter, so that the game will introduce you to the fishing system and mechanisms with its own tutorials. To get started, just go near a lake or river, choose your fishing hook and attach a bait to it, and then start catching fish. However, if you want to become an expert angler sooner rather than later, there are some useful tips and tricks, all of which we’ll cover in detail below.

1. Catching fish and catching them

If we say that fishing in Red Dead Redemption 2 is a little more difficult and unsettled than hunting, we are not saying too much. To catch fish, you have to be very patient and careful and act very quickly. The first thing you do is hold the L2 or LT button ready to throw the hook, and then the longer you hold down the R2 or RT button, the farther your bait will be thrown. After casting the fishing line, there are two situations depending on the bait you used. If your bait is a bobber, which is actually a piece of colored plastic, you have to wait after dropping the line in the water to quickly pull it towards you whenever a fish is hooked. If you’ve cast the hook close enough that you can see the fish moving around it, you can press R2 or RT repeatedly to make Arthur shake the bait to attract the fish’s attention. Of course, be aware that repeating this too much will scare the fish away from the bait. If the bait you are using is a lure that actually looks like a small, real fish, your job will be a little more complicated. In this case, after dropping the rope in the water, you should slowly pull it towards you so that the fish will follow it and finally catch the bait. In this case, being able to see the fish in the water will help you more. Either way, always wait for a strong pull from the fishing line and then pull the hook towards you. Sometimes the fish will first hit the bait a few times and then bite it.

When a fish is hooked, your hook bends and is pulled towards the water. Remember to never gather the rope in this position, as this will cause it to tear. First, let the fish get tired of pulling itself, and then pull the line towards you. Meanwhile, if the fish moves in any direction, you have to turn the left shocker in the opposite direction. In this case, it is better to turn the shocker on the right side in the direction of gathering the rope to prevent the fish from going this way and that. Note that if the rope gets stuck on a rock or stone, it will definitely break and you will lose the bait and fish. Another important point is that in order to speed up the gathering of the rope, at the same time as you rotate the right shocker counterclockwise, it is better to bend the left shocker downwards as well. All of these challenges are directly related to the size of the fish, and the bigger your catch, the harder it will be to catch and may even take several minutes.

2. Getting to know the types of baits

As in the real world, here we are faced with different types of bait, each of which is necessary to attract a specific group of fish. Bobber baits, including corn, bread, cheese and worms, can be purchased from a variety of places. On the other side, we have Lure baits, which have different types depending on the place where you will fish, and to catch legendary fish, you must use special versions of this bait.

How to find legendary beasts and fish?

Knowing all the necessary prerequisites, now it’s time to introduce the locations of all the legendary animals and show you their exact location on the map. We mentioned before which of the legendary creatures are available from the beginning and which will be huntable after passing certain stages. The point is that for animals on land, all the stages mentioned are among the main stages of the story, but in order to get access to the legendary fish, you have to go to a sub-stage in a certain place on the map.

In the end, you Zumji users can also share your questions and experiences with us regarding the different parts of the Red Dead Redemption 2 gameplay.

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cyber security



Cyber ​​security is a very vital and important issue that has received special attention in today’s world, and with the advancement of technology and communication, cyber attacks have also increased greatly, which sometimes have serious consequences for individuals and organizations. Therefore, in order to achieve cyber security, one should pay attention to issues related to the security of data, networks, software, etc.; Protecting confidential and important resources against unauthorized access and hackers, using strong encryption, updating security systems, training employees in the field of cyber security, etc. are some of the protective measures to prevent and deal with cyber attacks.

Cyber ​​security refers to the set of actions and measures that are necessary to protect our information and data in the Internet space; These security measures are implemented through measures, techniques and technologies such as encryption, firewalls, anti-virus software, security updates and user training to identify and prevent cyber threats.

Considering the unlimited and extensive user spaces that are available to virtual users more and more every day; The scope of cyber activity and security has also expanded and requires consultation, science and diverse expertise to prevent the occurrence of cyber crimes and implement appropriate protocols in dealing with any threat; which causes problems for users or national security at the individual and social level; Therefore, in the following, we will discuss the whole of this protection system and how it works.

Definition of cyber security

What is cyberspace security? This is the question of many people for whom cyber security remains interesting and yet unknown! In general, cyber security is information and a set of measures that covers all aspects of using the important internet space.

What is cyber security in simple words? In answer to this question, it should be said: this security is actually the protection of information and computer systems against threats and internet attacks in the modern world of communication.

Cyber ​​threats can include: hacker attacks, system intrusion, information theft, malware (viruses and malicious software) and other security breaches. Therefore, the general steps of cyber security are compiled and implemented as follows.

Security protocols: The use of security protocols such as: HTTPS is important for online communication with websites and services; Therefore, these protocols ensure that your communications are encrypted and secure.

Encryption: use encryption to protect personal and sensitive information such as: passwords and banking information that are important; As a result, by using encryption algorithms, your information is stored secretly.

Software updates: software updates such as the operating system, browser, etc. These updates often include security fixes that reduce possible weaknesses and vulnerabilities in your system by installing them.

Strong passwords: use strong and unique passwords for each account that contain a combination of upper and lower case letters, numbers and special symbols; Use different passwords for each account to prevent hacking.

Threat Awareness: Being aware of common cyber threats such as phishing, malware, and intrusions may help you take steps to prevent them; So always be careful of suspicious messages and links.

Regular backups: In case of problems like hacking or data loss, you can back up your data if necessary.

Security software: Using antivirus, firewall and anti-spyware software can prevent malicious attacks such as intrusion and installation of malware, these software help detect and block suspicious activities on your system.

Education and Awareness: Getting cybersecurity education and awareness of how to protect against threats can help you deal with cyber risks; Therefore, familiarity with the topics of encryption, phishing, penetration, etc. will help you to take appropriate measures against these threats.

In general, Cybersecurity to protect security information includes three main elements: systems, networks, and people, so measures are taken to protect systems and networks against virtual attacks, and training users to prevent cyber threats is also very important.

History of cyber security

The history of cyber security goes back to the early days of computer networks; At first, the main purpose of computer networks was to share resources and communicate between computers, and cyber security was not so important; But with the expansion of the Internet and the increase in the number of computers and services, the need to protect sensitive information against cyber threats has increased.

In the 1990s, with the expansion of the Internet and the widespread use of the Web, cyber threats increased significantly, and the Internet was used as a global network, and this led to new threats such as viruses, worms, Trojans, and DoS attacks. ) Led; During this period, cryptography and other security techniques were also being developed.

In the 2000s, with the rapid growth of e-commerce and the transfer of sensitive information through the Internet, the need for more cyber security and cyber attacks became more complex, and new techniques such as phishing, penetration, and identity theft appeared, and attacks on various systems, large networks, and even Governments also happened.

Nowadays, maintaining the security of information (cyber security) in cyberspace is one of the main priorities for organizations, governments and ordinary users. The development of new technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning has caused new challenges and threats in the field of cyber security.

Many famous cyber incidents in the history of attacks such as Wannacry and NotPetya in 2017 showed that security flaws in systems and networks can have serious consequences for organizations and communities; Since then, awareness and education about cyber security has been increasing and many organizations and individuals are trying to protect against cyber threats and take appropriate security measures.

The importance of cyber security for countries

Previously, we got acquainted with the essential role of this protection system in maintaining the privacy of users in cyberspace; These facilities are also very vital for organizations and companies; Because information theft can have serious consequences, including loss of customer trust, financial damage, and even damage to an organization’s history and reputation.

At the same time, cyber security allows us to use online services safely and securely; Therefore, by guaranteeing security in various processes such as: bank transactions, online shopping and secure communication, people can use internet services and online portals with more confidence.

Given that cyber threats are constantly changing and evolving; Continuous updating and awareness about new solutions and techniques plays an important role; Therefore, in the following, we mention some of the main benefits of cyber security at the individual and social level.

1-Maintaining personal information including bank account information, passwords, emails, and other sensitive audience information.

2-Protection of digital assets such as important files, images, videos, etc.

3-Protecting privacy by preventing unauthorized access to personal information due to the ever-increasing growth of technology and online space

4-Maintaining the security of organizations and institutions by improving cyber security, in the public and private sector, which leads to the protection of information and public trust of users.

5-Prevention of cyber crimes due to the increasing use of the Internet and digital systems

Types of cyber security

Although cyber security is implemented according to the type of crimes, type of attacks, etc. in each country according to its own algorithm and laws; But in general, this system uses a variety of security tricks, strategies and protection techniques in technical, intelligent, software and web-based ways with the aim of preventing the intrusion of unauthorized agents and preventing such criminals from accessing confidential data; to prevent any violation of the privacy of organizations and user pages; Therefore, the main types of cyber security to achieve these goals are as follows.

Network security and cyber security

It includes measures and methods used to protect computer networks and prevent unauthorized access, attackers and cyber spies; This includes the use of firewalls, authorized private networks, data encryption and detection of network attacks.

Cyber ​​security in applications

To protect software and computer programs against intrusion and harmful attacks, cyber security programs are used, which include: using security tests and using secure codes, penetration testing methods and training developers in the field of security.

data security

This type of cyber security focuses on sensitive and important data protection operations and deals with any intrusion, destruction, sealing, processing, reset and unauthorized change of data by foreign agents; Data security includes the use of data encryption, access management policies, regular backups, and data protection against theft and unauthorized access.

Physical security

The set of measures that are taken to protect the assets of an organization against cyber attacks; It is located in the area of ​​physical security; Therefore, the protection of physical equipment related to cyberspace such as: servers, routers, switches and network equipment, using physical access control systems, is done by this type of cyber security.

Cryptographic security

Information encryption is one of the main methods to protect data in cyber communication, and during this process, readable information is converted into a coded and unknown format; Therefore, in this type of cyber security, it is very important to use security methods and standards as a general strategy in the design and implementation of encryption systems.

Cyber ​​security with artificial intelligence: artificial intelligence supports a major part of cyber security and includes: quick detection of attacks, prevention of new attacks, quick response to threats, strengthening of the security system, etc.; This intelligent diagnosis and consequently fast and automatic actions will significantly affect the speed of action in responding and disrupting cyber attacks.

Cyber ​​security also includes educating and informing users about the threats of cyber groups and methods of prevention and response to this ambiguity; What do cyber groups mean? Or who are the cybers?

Cyber ​​group means a group of people or organizations that attack cyber systems and networks with the aim of carrying out activities related to information technology, communication (IT) and cyber space in violation of laws and restrictions.

The members of the cyber group can consist of hackers, computer criminals, hacktivists, cyber spies, etc., with the malicious purpose of collecting information, damaging economic and political structures, destroying online services, and threatening the personal and social security of cyberspace users.

Cyber ​​security roadmap and its goals

The cyber security roadmap is a comprehensive plan designed to achieve cyber security goals in an organization; This map includes strategies, policies, processes, technologies and security measures; which are used to deal with cyber threats and maintain the security of systems and data in an organization, and some of the goals of cyber security are:

1) maintaining the health and integrity of systems: the main goal of cyber security is to protect the information and communication technology (ICT) systems of organizations against cyber attacks and intrusions; This includes maintaining data integrity, preventing system destruction, and preventing unauthorized access to organization resources.

2) Risk management: cyber security must continuously identify possible risks and implement appropriate plans and solutions to reduce them; Identifying vulnerabilities, assessing risk, implementing security measures and continuity of processes are some of the measures of risk management.

3) Protection of data and information: One of the important goals of cyber security is the protection of sensitive data and information, for example: encryption, access management, regular backups, privacy protection, implementation of policies and requirements related to data protection. .

4) Training and awareness of employees: one of the important factors in cyber security is awareness and training; To make employees aware of cyber risks, prevention methods, safe behaviors and correct use of technologies.

5) Compliance with laws and regulations: Organizations must be in line with the laws and regulations related to cyber security that are determined by the government or relevant institutions; Also, comply with personal information protection laws, security standards, reporting and fulfilling legal requirements.

These are just a few of the goals of cyber security, and the roadmap program is designed and implemented for each organization according to its specific needs and conditions; This program should be continuously updated and evaluated to keep pace with changes in cyber threats and new technologies and help maintain the organization’s cyber security.

Types of cyber security threats

Cyber ​​security threats can arise from different sources and occur at different scales; According to the source of the attacker and its goals, there are also different categories of violations in the field of cyber security, which the examples below show the list of the most dangerous cyber attacks.

Hacker attacks

This type of attack includes unauthorized attempts to penetrate systems or networks with the aim of accessing sensitive information, destroying systems or stealing resources.

Denial of Service (DoS) attacks

By occupying system or network resources, this type of attack disrupts the main service for users and deprives them of access to the desired service.

Phishing attacks

In this type of attacks, the attacker encourages users to reveal sensitive information such as passwords or credit card numbers by sending fake emails or web pages.

Physical penetration

By infiltrating the organization’s physical space, the attacker can gain access to technical equipment, servers, routers and other devices and destroy or abuse them.

Internal penetration

These types of threats occur when employees or insiders with authorized access to systems and information attempt to steal information, destroy systems, or cause damage.

Software security holes

 when the software contains security weaknesses; An attacker can exploit them and gain unauthorized access or control to systems and data.

Vector attacks on protocols

One of the most common cyber security challenges is exploiting weaknesses and vulnerabilities in network protocols that lead to system intrusion or unauthorized access to information.

Remote attacks

Attempts to infiltrate systems and networks remotely without physical access to the devices and often through the Internet, establishing insecure connections, exploiting security weaknesses and network mechanisms.

These are just a few of the types of cyber security risks and new threats are emerging every day; To deal with these threats, a combination of technical solutions, policies, cyber security training are usually provided to users in the form of cyber security books, cyber security training videos and more specialized items that we mention below.

Cyber ​​security laws

Cyber ​​security laws are defined as a set of regulations and standards by governments, organizations and international organizations; These laws and regulations protect against cyber threats and control unauthorized behavior; Despite the different legislations that are common in every government; We mention some of the most important cyber laws.

Personal information protection laws: These laws usually include restrictions and requirements for organizations and service providers that must protect users’ personal information.

Cybercrime laws: These laws define what types of behaviors and actions are prohibited in cyberspace and determine legal penalties for such crimes; including hackers, internet fraud, identity theft, electronic fraud, etc.

Sensitive information protection rules: These rules are adopted to protect sensitive and confidential information such as: business information, financial information, etc. for encryption, limited access, monitoring and other sensitive security measures.

Laws of information technology rights: These laws are related to legal issues in the field of information and communication technology, which include: laws about intellectual property rights, publication, access to information, e-commerce laws, etc.

Laws and cyber crimes against national and social security vary somewhat between countries, and some organizations and companies also implement their own internal laws to protect cyber security.

Active cyber security companies in the world

Today, there are a large number of companies active in the field of cyber security protection and combating security threats, each of which operates in specific areas and trends of cyber security and has a well-equipped and intelligent system capable of identifying potential threats and managing cyber risk.

Some of these companies provide security services alone or in collaboration with other companies; They also provide actions such as: tracking cyber threats, penetration testing, security training, etc. and consider improving cyber security, which we will introduce some of the best in this industry.

Siemens company

is one of the top and famous companies in the field of cyber security; which provide cyber security protection solutions for companies and individual customers.

McAfee Co

McAfee is one of the leading companies in the field of cyber security that covers various security solutions, including antivirus, firewall and cloud security protection products.

Trend Micro Inc

Trend Micro is the largest cyber security company in Japan and one of the global leaders in the field of cyber security and provides antivirus, antispyware, intrusion prevention, vulnerability management, etc. software in the field of combating cyber threats.

Cisco Systems Inc

It is one of the largest information technology and computer network companies in the world, which operates in the field of network equipment such as cyber security, cloud, Internet of Things, e-commerce, etc., and the following are also considered to be the best active centers in the field of cyber security.



 (Palo Alto Networks)




 (Carbon Black)


 (Juniper Networks)

Cyber ​​security learning path

The type of work and the special sensitivity of the activity in the field of cyber security requires people who have the continuity and strong motivation to learn in this broad field and with practical skills and theoretical knowledge, the necessary expertise to protect the material and intellectual rights of virtual users at an individual level. , social and even national; Therefore, in order to learn cyber security, you can follow the technical and fundamental training path through the following steps.

Acquisition of concepts and principles of cyber security: At this stage, you should familiarize yourself with the basic concepts and principles of cyber security education, such as: cyber threats, security weaknesses, attack and defense methods, encryption, personal information protection, and the like.

Studying educational resources: for more detailed and complete learning, you can refer to reliable educational resources and various reference cyber security books in the field of information protection; Books such as: Finding and Exploiting Security Flaws, Hacking: The Art of Exploitation, Network Security: Private Communications in the Public World, Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms and Source Code in C Language and…

Attend cyber security courses: Some cyber security courses and workshops are a great way to get hands-on learning and hands-on experience with security matters. In these courses, you can learn about real security tools and techniques and apply security solutions with pre-designed exercises.

Taking exams and certifications: Taking exams and getting certifications related to cyber security develop your skills and talent; Therefore, you can participate in tests such as CompTIA Security+, Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) and similar.

Practical exercise and security test: To improve your skills, you can do practical exercises and related security tests; These exercises include building and testing dynamic sites, Capture The Flag (CTF) competitions, and practicing with accredited security organizations.

Cyber ​​security training videos: In this field, there are also valuable works for familiarization and training in the form of cyber security style videos that make it easier to understand and acquire this information, such as: Essential Knowledge Collection (2017), Information Security Management Certificate (CISM2019) and …

What are the fields and trends of cyber security?

Network security: In this trend, the security of computer networks, network equipment and protocols related to them is focused.

Program security: In this trend, the security of software, applications, websites, and identifying and fixing vulnerabilities and weak points in programs are discussed.

Operating System Security: This field covers the security of various operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and Macintosh, and focuses on security settings and dealing with threats related to operating systems.

Cloud security: With the increasing use of cloud services such as: Amazon Web Service and Microsoft Azure, cloud security is also very important.

Security of wireless networks: networks such as Wi-Fi take their security from this field, and experts identify and deal with security threats and deal with intrusion into wireless networks.

Security Analysis: Specialists in this field are proficient in analyzing threats, collecting and analyzing security data, and identifying weaknesses and vulnerabilities.

Cyber ​​security field: This branch teaches topics such as artificial intelligence, cryptography, database protection, behavioral analysis, network security, cyber risk management and related laws and regulations.

Incident security, information protection, and Internet of Things security are other trends in the dynamic and complex field of cyber security, and these fields and trends may be introduced in different universities and educational institutions with different names and details.

Currently, there is no cyberspace security major in high school as a separate academic major; But some high schools and technical and vocational schools include courses related to cyber space security in their educational programs; Also, courses related to computer science, networks, information security and information technology are offered in the form of fields such as: computer science and information and communication technology.

But academic programs in the field of cyber space security in the university include: security technology courses, cryptography basics, behavioral analysis, cyber risk management, use of security tools, network security, defense strategies and cyber attacks. Also, training programs can be developed based on international regulations and standards of security and industrial institutions in this field.

In addition to theoretical courses, the cyber security field in the university also supports practical and practical aspects, and these programs include: practical laboratories, supplementary projects, workshops and practical training in the field of cyber security, as well as providing internship opportunities in the cyber security industry.

How is cyber security in other countries?

The state of cyber security in each country depends on various factors, such as: policies and laws related to cyber security, technical capabilities, training and awareness of users, the type of threats and cyber attacks, etc.; Therefore, each government, according to its own security strategies, adopts special protocols to deal with cyber attacks.

Cyber ​​security of the United States of America: The United States has one of the most advanced cyber security structures in the world; cyber security in the United States consists of security teams and organizations such as the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Cyber ​​Security and Critical Infrastructure Agency (CISA) to deal with has formed with cyber threats.

Israel’s cyber security: Israel’s cyber security level is relatively strong and advanced and has developed advanced systems and equipment to combat cyber threats; Also, due to the geographical location of this country and Israel’s need to protect its national security against cyber threats, this country is considered one of the world leaders in the field of cyber security.

British cyber security: the state of British cyber security has also improved to a great extent and the British government has developed specific policies and laws to deal with cyber threats; Cyber ​​security poles in the UK are also responsible for planning, coordinating and responding to cyber threats.

The most dangerous cyber attacks that have ever occurred in the world

In the cyber field, there have been many attacks that have been very dangerous and effective; But determining cyber security risks can be a relative issue and depends on various factors such as: its effects, destination, size and time of the attack.

Rantum One attacks: In 2017, WannaCry attacks spread rapidly around the world using the virus encryption software; These attacks affected Windows operating systems and shut down thousands of organizations in more than 150 countries.

Petya attacks: Petya attacks in 2017, which encrypted and disabled computers by using security weaknesses in the Windows operating system; These attacks also affected all over the world and made many organizations face big security problems.

DDoS attacks: This attack is known as one of the most dangerous cyber attacks, and this type of attack is carried out at certain times and by using weak points of systems; Systems that can act aggressively are connected to each other through computer networks, and each of these systems can steal information from each other or cause their malfunctions.

Cyber ​​security services and its application in different industries

Hospital cyber security: In the healthcare sector, cyber security is important for protecting sensitive medical data, medical systems, smart medical equipment and protecting the privacy of hospitals and patients, and includes: monitoring and protecting medical systems, encryption of medical information and network security. It is a hospital.

Car cyber security: In the car industry, cyber security is very important for smart cars connected to the Internet; Therefore, the cyber security services of this industry include: protection of automatic driving systems, prevention of attacks on car cameras, navigation systems and protection of drivers’ personal information.

Industrial automation cyber security: In this industry, cyber security plays a role in protecting industrial networks, control systems and sensitive data; Monitoring and defense against cyber threats, system penetration testing, cyber risk management, etc. are some of the security processes in this field.

Passive defense cyber security: a set of actions to protect national resources and assets against cyber attacks and includes: examination, analysis, prediction and mechanisms designed to protect systems, networks, data and information related to an institution, organization or protect the country against cyber attacks.

Drone cyber security: Drone cyber security includes the protection of drone control systems, their processes and communications against cyber attacks. This security is done by analyzing and assessing security risk, identifying vulnerabilities, preventing unauthorized access, monitoring network traffic, etc.

Children’s cyber security: educating and informing children about the concept of cyber threats and ways to manage and prevent them, including: teaching basic principles, monitoring and supervision, privacy protection, online disasters, responsible use of communication technologies.

These are just a few areas of cyber security services in different industries; Therefore, nowadays, due to the increasing growth of cyber threats, the need for cyber security has become more important in all industries and sectors;

Introduction of several books in the field of cyber security

Cyber ​​rules book

The Art of Deception

Hacking The Art of Exploitation

The Web Application Hacker’s Handbook

 Cybersecurity The Beginner’s Guide

Summary of what cyber security is

Cyber ​​security is a very vital and important issue that has received special attention in today’s world, and with the advancement of technology and communication, cyber attacks have also increased greatly, which sometimes have serious consequences for individuals and organizations. Therefore, in order to achieve cyber security, one should pay attention to issues related to the security of data, networks, software, etc.; Protecting confidential and important resources against unauthorized access and hackers, using strong encryption, updating security systems, training employees in the field of cyber security, etc. are some of the protective measures to prevent and deal with cyber attacks.

In general, cyber security requires various and numerous methods and approaches, which are different depending on the type of organization, work environment and individual needs, and the use of appropriate security methods, sufficient knowledge and training, cooperation with experts and the use of modern tools can protect Help against cyber threats and information security.

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curved screens


5 things you should know about bendable displays

Phone screens have been made of flat glass or plastic for years, while recently the pioneers in this field have moved towards making curved screens. Since these changes, more and more manufacturers are moving towards making curved screens every year; Screens of mobile phones, monitors and televisions. Now, perhaps one of the most fundamental questions is that after this technology and its widespread use, we will move towards using what technology and making what kind of screens?

The answer to this question lies in flexible screens. A new technology and design that has become popular these days, and it is expected that we will see its presence in the future. Flexible screens are capable of marking one of the biggest technological developments over the next few decades. These designs make it possible to build phones that we can’t even imagine and that’s why they are so important.

1- The fact that the display is flexible does not mean that it is curved

Although curved screens are really attractive, the fact that a screen is bendable does not mean that it is curved.

Liquid crystal displays are a collection of materials that are manufactured in a flat form. A number of companies, including Samsung, have succeeded in making curved examples of these displays.

Recently, OLED screens have also gained popularity because the structures used in them are simpler, the image quality is better, and they have better flexibility. Due to the lack of backlight producing components in OLED displays, these displays can be thinner and made with different forms; For example, in a curved shape, as Samsung has used them in the Galaxy S7 Edge.

Greater flexibility, narrowness and higher image quality have made OLED a better option for making curved screens, and now it seems quite clear that OLED will gradually replace LCD. Currently, the use of OLED technology in televisions or computer screens is somewhat expensive, but it can be predicted that these costs will decrease over time.

Although LCD is thicker and more multilayered than OLED, both can be used in a bendable form; For example, one of Apple’s suppliers, Japan Display, recently announced that it is making a 5.5-inch flexible LCD display with FHD resolution. The company plans to make such a display using a plastic layer, although generally this type of display is made of non-flexible glass.

But a bendable screen is completely different, and means pushing the boundaries of flexibility to a very surprising extent. Making these screens means finding a way to make materials that don’t break under pressure, and while an image is playing, you can flex and bend the screen many times in different shapes and directions without interrupting the process of playing images.

2- Curved screens are more durable

One of the biggest positives of bendable screens is that they make gadgets more durable. A phone with a curved screen can withstand many impacts. In fact, it should be said that with the introduction of these types of screens into the market, there will be no more breaking and damage of screens.

Although this process and reaching such resistant displays is a time-consuming matter. Our hypothesis today is that bendable displays will use plastic instead of glass. But even plastic can be damaged under certain conditions and break if subjected to excessive pressure.

Manufacturers like Corning are working on a bendable glass called Willow. These glasses are going to be used in making many products from smartphones to televisions. Willow is as thick as paper and can bend like paper. However, Willow can also break under extreme pressure. In this way, it is clear that the use of flexible screens greatly increases the durability of products, but turning the screens into completely unbreakable screens requires spending more time and effort.

3- Samsung, LG and Apple

Three major smartphone manufacturers are rumored to be working on bendable displays. It is said that Samsung will unveil its Galaxy X foldable phone in the third quarter of 2017. The most important feature of the Galaxy X phone is that it opens outwards and one can turn the phone into a 7-inch tablet.

Apparently, LG is also working on its own bendable phone that opens outwards like the aforementioned Samsung phone. According to one of the patent documents, LG has a plan to make a foldable phone that can be used even when folded.

Apple also plans to use bendable screens in the iPhone. However, it is unlikely that we will see a bendable iPhone anytime soon. Although some rumors stated that this giant of the technology world may use Japan Display’s bendable screens in the 2018 iPhone, it is very unlikely that Apple will decide to use a relatively raw technology so quickly.

4- Why is the screen curved?

One of the basic questions about bendable screens is why a phone should use such a screen in the first place?

As mentioned, one of the important features of these screens is their durability. They can be much easier to maintain and easier to repair.

Another issue is that making curved screens is not just for phones. It is possible to make a smart watch with a curved display, and naturally, in such cases, the ability to bend and wrap around the hand is an important issue. On the other hand, we can expect more creative uses of phones. For example, remember the prototype made by Lenovo. A smartphone that we can wrap around our wrist like a watch or a wristband.

We can even think about using bendable displays in cars. Cars are becoming more digital every day and screens can be used in different parts of them. The Mercedes E-Class, for example, displays its rear gauges on a 12.3-inch HD display that runs the length of the dashboard. Both the Tesla Model S and the Tesla Model X have a large 17-inch center screen, but they can also use a curved display that flexibly runs along the dashboard.

5- The biggest challenges

The concept of the bendable display is not so new and as you know many manufacturers are showing examples of these displays in various exhibitions. But aren’t you interested in knowing why these displays were never released? That’s because it’s really hard to make bendable displays, even harder to make a device that can effectively use them.

To make such a product, manufacturers must know how to use different components within this flexible space. For example, making self-bending batteries is difficult because in the current technology, the battery must maintain its shape. If we bend today’s batteries, they will short circuit, and if we put too much pressure on them, they will explode. Both LG and Samsung have been working on making bendable batteries for years, but the technology has yet to be presented in a concrete product form.

Currently, the only way to use a bendable display is to use them in devices that have some kind of hinge. For example, we have seen this technology in Lenovo Yoga Book. A device that has a touch screen and a touch keyboard that can be converted into a larger tablet for drawing. With the hinge, manufacturers can reuse today’s batteries without the hassle, while also adding a bendable part to their device lineup.

In this way, it should be said that we are still waiting for the release of a truly bending product to the market. A product that, with its launch, we will witness a rare durability and many opportunities in the fields of designing and creating innovation in smartphones. For years, phones and tablets have been going through a process of monotony and little change, and the supply of curved screens can completely change this repetitive process with a kind of revolution and inject new blood into the veins of this market.

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3D displays


What is a 3D display?

All displays that can add depth to two-dimensional images using different technologies are called three-dimensional displays. These displays have different technologies and applications. For example, they are used to make advertising billboards, television screens, game consoles, mobile phones, personal computers and laptops, among others. In this article from the Diaco online store, we will learn about these displays and the technologies used in them.

Technologies used in 3D displays

There are different technologies for making a 3D display . The oldest of these technologies is Anaglyph 3D technology. In this technology, two images with two different color spectrums are displayed. Viewers also use glasses that have two lenses with different color filters. Therefore, each image is received by one eye and then combined by the brain, and the image gains depth. We examine other technologies used in 3D displays together.

Polarized 3D technology

Polarized 3D is the method used today in the construction of 3D cinemas and other large displays. In this method, two synchronized projectors throw different left and right images on a screen (like a cinema screen). These images have two different circular polarizations, clockwise or counterclockwise. The special glasses for these displays also have lenses with the same polarization so that each eye receives the correct image.

3D active shutter technology

3D active shutter technology is used in making 3D TV and some video projectors. In this method, left and right images are sent alternately on one page. The glasses also have shutters to receive only one of the two alternating images. The important point is that in previous technologies, if the glasses are not present, the received image is blurred or distorted. But in this technology, if there are no glasses, the image is not blurry, but it is not three-dimensional either.

3D autostereoscopic technology

Autostereoscopic 3D technology is one of the technologies for creating a 3D image without the need for glasses. The problem with this technology is that it is only suitable for a viewer in a fixed place in front of the screen, and for that reason it is mostly used on small screens. One of the applications of this technology is the Nintendo 3DS game console.

TV and 3D computer monitors

3D TV is a tool with 3D display technology that mimics the way our eyes and brain perceive image depth. The human brain receives the images of each eye separately and then superimposes and integrates them. Therefore, the impression of depth is created, or in other words, the depth of the image is perceived. To mimic such a mechanism, 3D TVs must present two images simultaneously instead of one. So in addition to the TV, you need 3D glasses as well as 3D video content.

We explained to you about 3D glasses in 3D technologies. But what is the method of producing 3D movies? There are different technologies in the production of these films. The most common of them is that each scene of the film is filmed by two cameras that have a certain distance from each other. 3D computer and laptop screens also use exactly the same technologies and methods, and the only difference is in the screen size.

What is a 3D LED billboard?

To understand the feature of depth in a 3D cinema, you must use special glasses for this technology. But in the 3D billboard, you don’t need these glasses anymore. In the last three or four years, prominent brands in the world have used these screens to advertise their products and brands. For example, the Swiss watch brand IWC Schaffhausen showed the details and parts of its watches in 3D on a screen in London. These 3D movies are also very popular in social networks and are quickly shared by the users of these networks.

How does a 3D LED billboard work?

Two technologies of flexible LED displays and 3D display technology are used in the construction of 3D LED advertising billboards. The special thing about this display method is that these displays create a kind of visual illusion that the human brain perceives as the depth of the image. 3D LED displays have the ability to bend up to 90 degrees. Therefore, they can combine and display two images recorded from different angles. So our eyes can detect parallax to see images in three dimensions.

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Commercials recorded for display on 3D billboards are films with cinematic gimmicks, innovative ideas and special technologies at the time of filming. These cases make the effect of advertising films on passers-by multiply. Therefore, advertising messages remain in the minds of the audience for a much longer period of time. On the other hand, this attraction makes the audience want to know more about the brand and the products being advertised.



Backgammon is a mental game that relies on planning, method, counting and luck. In this game for two players, the parties move their pieces clockwise or counterclockwise based on the two numbers printed on the dice and finally remove them from the game board. Remove from the playing field. After Go and Checkers, it is the third game in the world that is very common among the people of Eastern Europe and the Middle East, especially the people of Iran. In some regions of Iran, this game is called backgammon or backgammon.



A leaf from Baisangari’s Shahnameh that shows chess players and backgammon players.

Archaeological excavations in the burnt city show that this game existed in Iran in 3000 BC. A set of 30 beads and two dice in one page with a picture of a snake on it and found in Shahr Sokhte is 100 to 200 years older than the one found in Ur.

Iran is known as the motherland of this game among all the people of the world. The first man-made game on this earth, which is actually known as the ancestor of backgammon and perhaps chess, and dates back to about 6 thousand years ago during the Elam civilization in Khuzestan, Izeh and Shush region, is a game board that was built in the burnt city of Sistan and Balochistan was discovered from the ancient grave known as No. 761 along with 60 beads and it is made of ebony wood and in the shape of a snake that has coiled around itself 20 times and held its tail in its mouth. Its beads and dice, which were completely different from today’s dice, were placed in a clay container next to the game board and were made of common stones in the burnt city, i.e. lapis lazuli, agate, and turquoise. Until now, it was believed that the game board found in the royal cemetery of Ur in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) is the oldest game made by humans. Another example of the world’s oldest board and dice games, which was discovered five thousand years ago, in the shape of an eagle and a scorpion, made of soapstone, was discovered on the edge of Halil River in Jiroft, Kerman, following the excavations of Yusuf Majidzadeh, and it has holes (houses) that Beads were placed in it. Other examples of games have been discovered in the Silk Hill of Kashan, the rocks of Kharg Island in the Persian Gulf. Researchers have called this type of board and dice games, which have been discovered in Iran and among other ancient nations such as China, Egypt, etc., as the ancestors of today’s backgammon game. In fact, all these early games were in such a way that they moved a number of stones or pieces on a board with different numbers of houses and brought the pieces from a starting point to an ending point.

The origin of modern backgammon: The oldest documents in the world that indicate the existence of the backgammon throne in its modern form are completely authentic and historical Iranian documents that report the creation of this game during the Sassanid era by the hands of Bozorgmehr, a clever minister.

The first document: a Pahlavi writing called Chatrang Namag (Matikan Chatrang or Chess Report) was invented by Bozorgmehr in response to the chess game sent by the King of India to Anushirvan, and after Ardeshir Babakan, the founder of the Sassanid dynasty, he named it “Newardshir” in the meaning Ardeshir is called the brave. According to the text of Chatrang Namag book, Bozormehr draws inspiration from various symbols that are generally related to Zoroastrian beliefs in making Takht Nerd. Like the game board is likened to the earth, the four parts of the playground are likened to the four seasons, the black and white of the dice are likened to day and night, the number of dice is likened to the number of days in a month, the rotation of the dice is likened to the rotation of the stars and the stars, and the dice are likened to the movement of people. Also, arranging the pieces at the beginning of the game has been likened to the creation of the world and the collision and passing of the pieces to the collision and passing of humans in this life and at the end their exit from the game board has been compared to death. The symbolism can even be seen in the description of the dice numbers, which 1 is the sign of Ahura Mazda; 2 emblems of two Mino (Angre Mino and Sepenta Mino); 3 good thoughts, words and deeds; 4 signs of the four elements of creation, i.e. water, wind, earth, fire; 5 signs of the five lights of the sun, moon, stars, fire, lightning and 6 have become like six times. This game is also mentioned in the Talmud, and it is interesting that the sum of the numbers facing each other on the sides of the dice is always seven, which is a number that was dear to Iranians. As they put six against one, five against two and four against three.

The second document is a silver dish from the Sassanid era, which shows Sassanid soldiers playing backgammon and wrestling in the motifs of this dish.

The third document is Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, which deals with the story of making the backgammon board in the form of poetry, this time in the section “Inserting Chess”.


Board games have been around for thousands of years in Egypt and Southwest Asia. The ancient game of Sinite and the paintings of the great tombs show this fact.

What do the components of backgammon mean?

The meaning and concept of backgammon components is one of the most important issues in the game of backgammon. Backgammon is one of the ancient games in the world that has a long history. This game has been one of the most important pastimes of people since about 2000 years ago, and the origin of the backgammon game also goes back to India. This game dates back to very old civilizations such as: Roman civilization, Sumerian civilization, Iranian civilization and Egyptian civilization.

It is also worth mentioning that since the oldest backgammon board was found in the city of Sistan and Baluchistan in Iran; This game is also attributed to our country. This game has had its own rules and terms since the past, which are still used today. Also, the meaning and concept of backgammon components are important topics that were discussed in the past. In this article, we intend to fully familiarize you with the components of the backgammon board and the meaning and concept of the components of the backgammon board, so please stay with us.

The meaning and concept of backgammon components are as follows:

1- Backgammon board means the earth

2- Dice means lucky star

3- The rotation of the dice in the game means the rotation of days in life

4-30 pieces in backgammon means 30 days and nights in every month

5-24 house in backgammon means 24 hours in a day and night

4-6 parts of the backgammon field means 4 seasons a year

12-7 houses on each side of the game means 12 months in every year

5-8 hands in the backgammon game means 5 hours in a day and night

9- Game pieces mean people in life

10-Circulation of pieces in the backgammon game means circulation and movement of people in life

11-2 The black and white colors of beads mean night and day

12- The backgammon field means the sky

13- Removing the dice at the end of every backgammon game also means the death of people in life.

Meaning and concept of dice numbers in backgammon game

In addition to the meaning and concept of backgammon components that we mentioned in the previous part, the numbers also have their own meaning and concept in the backgammon game, which we will discuss in this part.

The meaning of each of the dice numbers in the backgammon game:

Number 1: It means the oneness of God and worship of God.

Number 2: means heaven and earth.

Number 3: It means the three principles of good thoughts, good speech and good deeds in Zoroastrianism.

Number 4: means north, south, west and east on earth.

Number 5: means sun, star, moon, fire and thunder.

Number 6: means 6 days of creation.

What is backgammon?

Backgammon is one of the two-person games that has special tactics. The board game is a strategic game that, in addition to the fact that luck affects its outcome, it also has rules and techniques. In this game, the person who gets all his pieces out of the field earlier than the opponent will win.

One of the features that has made this game a popular game is its excitement and unpredictability.

Although game experience has a high impact on winning and losing, in this game the winner will not be determined until the last moment and everything is unpredictable. So that even in some cases, a novice player may win against an experienced player. The backgammon playing field has two sides, which have 24 narrow triangles, which are called houses.

Also, the arrangement of beads can be in two ways: from right to left or from left to right.

What equipment do we need to play backgammon?

As mentioned in the previous parts, backgammon is one of the most popular games among people. And there are many people who play backgammon in their gatherings and parties. In fact, this game is considered one of the healthiest entertainments.

But this game, like other mental games, needs equipment and tools to play. In this section, we will introduce you to these devices.

Backgammon games are as follows:

1- The first and most important playground equipment is the backgammon board, which, as mentioned, has 24 triangular houses.

2- White and black pieces are also one of the most important components of the backgammon game.

3- Another important component in the backgammon game that determines the fate of the winner and loser is the dice. In backgammon we need two dice.

4-Another device used in the backgammon game. It is a double dice. The numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 are written on this dice and it is used when doubling the points. But it should be noted that in our country this device is not usually used for playing backgammon.

5- Another device that is used in some parts of the world to play backgammon is the dice cup or small dice. This tool is rarely used in Iran, just like dice.

All the things mentioned above are components of the backgammon board. Some of these components have their own meaning, so stay tuned to get to know the meaning and concept of backgammon components.

You can also visit the backgammon hut website to buy a backgammon game or any of the devices mentioned above. Or by clicking on this section, you will be taken to the backgammon store.

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If you are interested in learning about the history of the GTA series of games, we suggest you stay with us until the end of this article.

The Grand Theft Auto series, or GTA for short, is an action-adventure game that was first created in 1997 by David Jones and Mike Dailly. The title was later developed under the supervision of Dan and Sam Houser, Leslie Benzies and Aaron Garbut. This game was originally developed by the British branch of Rockstar North (formerly known as DMA Design) and published by Rockstar Games. The term grand theft auto is used in the United States for vehicle theft.

History of the GTA series of games

Most of the events of the GTA game episodes take place in fictional cities, some of which are named after real areas such as “Liberty City”, “Vice City” and “San Andreas”, respectively. They are located in New York, Miami and California. The first version of the game took place in three cities, but later episodes focused only on one city. The gameplay is in the open world style and the player can choose the next missions and direct the way the story is told. There are also side missions. The action-adventure style of the game leaves the player free to experience all kinds of stages; Such as driving stages, third-person shooting, car theft, role-playing, doing stealth stages and even participating in car racing.

In the GTA series of games, the focus of the main characters is on growth and promotion in the world of criminals, although the motivations are different in each game. The game also has “hit go ahead” elements, inspired by old 16-bit games like Riot City. The negative characters of the game are generally those who betrayed the main character or their organization or tried to stop his growth and development. Many famous people have been responsible for voicing the characters of the game, including Ray Liotta, Samuel L. Jackson” (Samuel L. Jackson) and “Peter Fonda” (Peter Fonda) pointed out.

DMA Design released the first version of the GTA game series in 1997. As of the end of 2019, eleven GTA games and four versions with additional content have been released. The third version of this game, GTA 3, is considered a special title, because it was at this time that the game changed from 2D to 3D. The subsequent versions were also made with the principles and rules of this version and were able to attract the opinions of critics and fans in each episode. This game appeared so powerful and successful that it was able to influence other open world games as well.

The GTA game series, which has appeared very successful both in terms of critics’ scores and in terms of sales, has been able to sell more than 280 million copies in the world, and its income is calculated to be more than 9 billion. This game was able to be included in the list of the fourth best-selling game in the world; Behind games like Mario, Tetris and Pokemon. In 2006, GTA was included in the UK’s Best Game Design list. In 2013, the Telegraph website listed Grand Theft Auto as the “most successful British export”. The game has also been discussed for having adult scenes and high violence. You can also read the latest published information about GTA 6 from this link.

DMA Design released the first version of the GTA game series in 1997. As of the end of 2019, eleven GTA games and four versions with additional content have been released. The third version of this game, GTA 3, is considered a special title, because it was at this time that the game changed from 2D to 3D. The subsequent versions were also made with the principles and rules of this version and were able to attract the opinions of critics and fans in each episode. This game appeared so powerful and successful that it was able to influence other open world games as well.

The GTA game series, which has appeared very successful both in terms of critics’ scores and in terms of sales, has been able to sell more than 280 million copies in the world, and its income is calculated to be more than 9 billion. This game was able to be included in the list of the fourth best-selling game in the world; Behind games like Mario, Tetris and Pokemon. In 2006, GTA was included in the UK’s Best Game Design list. In 2013, the Telegraph website listed Grand Theft Auto as the “most successful British export”. The game has also been discussed for having adult scenes and high violence.

Gta V game review

With the release of GTA V in 2013, Rockstar Games, a New York game company, showed off its power and ability to create open world games, and on the day of the game’s release, it sold more than 800 million dollars of this game, and even in the year Later, despite the release of Open World games such as Just Cause 3, MadMax and Whats Dogs 2, all three of which were fierce competitors of GTA V, the popularity and fans of GTA V did not decrease and we all witnessed the commotion and There was a lot of noise about this game before and especially after its release. The ps4 game GTA V was first introduced in 2013 and in 2015 for PC. It is interesting to know that this game has a Guinness record as the most profitable entertainment in history.

The GTA V game has a total of 69 main stages and 60 sub-stages, and it has three main characters, each of which has different characteristics and abilities, and for each of them, different and attractive stages have been considered that you can play during Switch the game with these three characters, and of course, there are many common stages designed for these three characters, where all three characters engage in theft and war with each other.

In order to make the game more interesting and enjoyable for gamers, Rockstar Games has provided a mode in GTA V where the gamer can continue the game in first person or third person.

Of course, one of the reasons that makes GTA V one of the best games today and separates it from other competitors and gives special popularity to this game is the powerful game engine RAGE (Rockstar Advanced Game Engine), which is special The games are owned by Rockstar Games. Rockstar uses this game engine both for its PS4 games and for its PC games.

GTA gameplay

In this section, we will review the features and gameplay elements of GTA games. In the GTI series of games, one of the main features that can be mentioned in terms of entertainment is the gameplay. The gameplay of all GTA games are designed in a way that allows the gamer to seek entertainment in the world and in a free environment. The existence of many challenges along with many stages in each version of the GTA game has made it possible for gamers to participate in this game series for a long time. If you are looking for more information in this regard, it is recommended to stay with us.

In each episode of the GTA series of games, the player had the ability to control a criminal in a big city who wanted to grow within the criminal organization. The player was given various missions by the bosses and important people of the city, which had to be done to tell the story of the game. Killing of private individuals and other acts of violence were normal features of each mission. Sometimes driving a taxi, helping to put out a fire, street rally races, driving a bus or learning to fly a helicopter were among other features of the first version.

In later versions, especially after the release of Grand Theft Auto 2, a richer story was included in the game, where the player had to face unfortunate events (for example, the main character was betrayed and then left to die) that served as motivation. It was possible for the player to want to reach the higher ranks of the organization, which always ended in victory.

Game characters

First character: Trevor is crazy!

Trevor Phillips, a 44-year-old military veteran, is a complete lunatic and lives in the Blaine County desert. By playing this game, you will realize how crazy this character is, to the point where you will be ashamed of killing people unnecessarily by doing some steps by assassinating yourself. However, assassination is a character that makes the game more diverse and exciting. slow

Trevor is inspired by the character of Steven Ogg, a Canadian actor, and even Rockstar Games has assigned Trevor’s in-game voices to this actor to make the game closer to reality.

Although Trevor is a mental patient and has an anti-social personality and a very violent character in this game, he is also a very loyal person.

Trevor and Michael are friends and colleagues from the beginning of the game, but after the heavy failure they suffer in a big bank robbery, they don’t meet each other until years later.

Trevor is a skilled pilot and cannot be controlled from the beginning of the game, but from the proluge stage, where he steals with Franklin and Michael, he can be controlled by the gamer and the gamer can switch between all three characters.

Second character: Michael, white beard plural

Michael de Santa is a distinct character and a family man, and he is the oldest character among these 3 characters. He lives on top of the hills modeled after the real Beverly Hills, above the city of Los Santos, and has two children, Jamie and Tracy. His daughter Tracy, who only thinks about having fun and seeking fame, and his son Jimmy, who has a special game room, and his whole life and concern is eating, sleeping and playing!

His wife Amanda spends Michael’s money on her pleasures. Michael and his wife Amanda have problems with each other and hate each other, but later on, with the occurrence of various events in the stages of the game, the relationship between the two gradually improves.

Michael is based on the 55-year-old character of Ned Luke, who is an American actor and has appeared in 29 movies so far, and is a classy and almost positive character compared to Trevor and Franklin in this game.

Michael is a very skilled and skilled person in robbing banks and gold shops, but because of the contract he signed with the American FBI, he has stopped doing illegal activities. He starts and brings Franklin along with him in his work.

The third character: Franklin, the god of Pheromone

Franklin is one of the well-known and popular characters of the GTA V game, which has been in the game since the beginning

Gta:San Andress, of course, has been a bit uglier with the famous white undershirt that everyone knows, and is more popular among gamers than the previous two characters.

The character of Franklin is also taken from Shawn Fonteno, who is an American actor and rapper from Los Angeles, and he is responsible for the voices of Franklin in this game.

Franklin, who is the youngest character among the three main characters, is a 20-year-old African American. He is a young and clever hat picker as well as a professional driver, and you can use Franklin’s special ability while driving, so that by pressing the Caps Lock button, the game will go into slow motion and you can go through the turns. Turn easily and have healthy overtaking. With this power, you can easily win in city car driving races or motor boat races by spending a little bit of ingenuity.

Franklin works at a luxury car dealership. In an interesting story, he enters Michael’s house for the purpose of stealing and after stealing his car on the way, unaware that Michael is inside the car, he falls into Michael’s trap, and from there he meets Michael.

Summary of the story of GTA v

We don’t intend to spoil the game, so we will briefly tell you the story of the game.

The story of GTA V starts from here when Michael and Trevor along with one of their colleagues rob a bank and suffer a heavy failure from this robbery so that their colleague is killed, Michael is seriously injured and Trevor runs away. put

After this scene, the game goes to a few years later where Michael has become a family man and has a normal life. After that, you start the game with the character of Franklin, who started the game with a bicycle in the version of San Andres, this time you start the game by stealing a car.

Later, these three characters get to know each other due to the interesting adventures that happen to them, and they carry out their work and plans to rob banks and jewelry stores, this time professionally, and the money They pocket a lot.

Gta V game has many different levels so that you will experience everything from piloting to submarine driving, racing cars, jet engines, boats, heavy engines and all while passing through the various levels of the game.

For example, in one stage of this game, after robbing a bank, you will face the police with iron armor and a barrage gun, and you will kill many policemen, of course, the policemen will not stop and come to you with a tank. They come and you have to be very careful and somehow escape from them.

And the bitter end of the game!

By going through all the stages, you will reach a bitter and mentally difficult stage!

You, who have been dealing with these three characters for hours and have created memories with each of them, will finally be forced to end the stages of this game, by your choice and by two other characters, to the life of one of the characters. End it!!! After completing all the steps, you can roam freely in the city and rob banks, buy land and houses in the city, and you can even go to the cinema and spend time or play darts or golf. Increase your character’s abilities.

Short but interesting facts about the game

In the game, when you get out of the car and the car turns off, a small sound “Tink Tink Tink” is heard, which is actually the sound of the car’s coolers turning off.

Also, when you are talking on the phone in the car, because you are holding the steering wheel with your other hand, you cannot turn the lights on or off.

Various mods have been made for the GTA V game and you can enter the infinite world by downloading and installing the mods and enjoy the game to the fullest. For example, there is a mod that if you install it, the graphics of the game will increase significantly, and also a mod that by installing it, you will be able to control various devices in the city, including traffic lights, with your phone, just like in the game Whats Dogs 2. Or even hack people’s cell phones!

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The game The Elder Scrolls: Arena was released in 1994, and to mark the 25th anniversary of the Elder Scrolls games, we take a look at the history of this series.

Bethesda Softworks started its work in 1986. The huge company that we know these days produced not so popular games like Gridiron in its early years, and in its early career, along with low-quality games such as the NES version of Home Alone and Where’s Waldo, mediocre works such as The Terminator for the DOS operating system also prepared But it was the first version of the Elder Scrolls series that could make Bethesda famous and provide the ground for the growth and expansion of this studio so that today we can see one of the largest History of the gamecompanies producing and publishing video games.

March 25, 1994 (April 5, 1373) was the day that the Elder Scrolls game was released, and until today we have witnessed the production of quality and attractive games from this collection. On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of one of the biggest games in this industry, we have looked at the different versions of Elder Scrolls and in the form of 25 sections, we have a look at these huge works of role-playing style. Stay with Zoomji.

After hearing the name of The Elder Scrolls, many gamers think of the memorable series of games of this franchise, the best of which is Skyrim. The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim tops the list with over 30 million copies sold, making it one of the top 20 best-selling games of all time. Now, after 9 years since the release of The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim game, Bethesda has released various add-on packages for this game, such as The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor, which has attracted the attention of fans of this popular game and caused which will be added daily to the fans of this series.

The Elder Scrolls Online game

The Elder Scrolls Online game has had a significant evolution in the last few chapters that have been released. Like the Morrowind version that takes the gamer to the island of Vvardenfell, the home of the dreaded Dark Elves, or Elsweyr that takes the gamer to dangerous deserts and forests with bamboo trees and reveals the mysterious Khajit. The Elder Scrolls Online game was very popular at the time of its release and brought Skyrim fans together.

The fighting system in this game has been significantly improved compared to the previous versions, and it is such that as your level increases, the difficulty of the game and the combat system will also improve. You can discover your skills after a period of time in the game and continue to play the game according to your skills. You can also get skills specific to that group by joining different groups. Apart from the fascinating story of Elder Scrolls Online – Grimor, a new black hole has been added to the game where you can play with your friends and have hours of fun.

How to make The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor

Right now, the creative team of The Elder Scrolls Online game knows very well what stage they are in the development of this game. After the update of One Tamriel in 2016 and the release of Morrowind in 2017, The Elder Scrolls Online is in a comfortable position to create interesting and engaging stories. This has helped the development of this game and has created different stages in the game that are full of different details such as black holes that exist in different places and powerful monsters that you have to destroy.

This issue has not changed for The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor, and in this version, as in the previous versions, there are different stories and people waiting for you in most places. Like the crew of a merchant ship on frozen shores who are trapped without any help and the water is freezing, or the story of a young woman who explores magic. Another area you can explore is an underground mine where disillusioned miners live. Maybe you can help them.

When the developers of The Elder Scrolls Online announced that the story of the game would take place in Skyrim West, the game’s developer Zenimax Online emphasized that “this version of the game has changed from Skyrim and is not graphically different from it” after the experience Grimm version and going to Solitude, you can see this empire 1000 years before the events of Skyrim. The gallows on the right and the clothing and potion market on the left are nicely recreated in The Elder Scrolls Online – Grimor.

Elder Scrolls Grimoire gameplay

The city of Solitude has been beautifully recreated in the game. Although the story of the game is almost 1000 years before the events of Skyrim, the city of Solitude has not changed much and there are still buildings that we see in Skyrim, but in The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor we can see them in better quality. So it can be said that for those who care about the visual graphics of the game, this game can satisfy them. Other wonders of the game are revealed in Blackreach. An area full of strange wonders, such as giant mushrooms, some of which are the size of a house, or Gothic-inspired castles, which are the size of a skyscraper, and luminous creatures that look like mermaids. Of course, along with the life of these aliens, we also see the Dwemer ruins in the Elder Scrolls online game – Grimor.

Sacrifice of dragons in The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor

In the game The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor, we don’t see any dragons, of course you can find their hometown, but unlike the original version of the game, there are no dragons in the game and most of the story revolves around vampires. The Elder Scrolls Grimoire game can remind you of the Skyrim DLC, Downguard. Just as you find a vampire companion in the Dawnguard DLC, in Grimmour you will be accompanied by your vampire companion at the very beginning of the game. Although Serana cannot be compared to Fennorian in any way. At times, the game’s story brings back memories of Skyrim, and of course, the voice of Lyris Titanborn, voiced by Jennifer Hale, helped with some of the weaker moments in The Elder Scrolls Online-Grymore.

Vampire skill in The Elder Scrolls Grimoire game

Another thing that has been added to the game The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor is special skills for vampires. By becoming a vampire, you gain skills specific to this group of people. The most interesting skill you get from this group is to sink your teeth into the necks of low-life thieves, when you do this, interesting animations are played and can entertain you for a while.

But playing as a vampire comes at a cost. Skills take more resources to upgrade, enemies deal more damage, and worse, at the highest possible level as a vampire, NPCs refuse to interact with you anymore. Of course, the only way to get rid of this situation is to wait for a while, or if you don’t feel like waiting, use a potion, which is often difficult to find.

The story of the Elder Scrolls Online Grimor game

As a new player, you wake up in a black hole and find a vampire named Fennorian next to you. Fortunately, he’s a good vampire and more like a rookie. At first glance, he looks a little hurt, and then he decides to help you, after you find his blood bottle. According to him, this bottle of blood was not forcibly taken from anyone, but was donated to him by different people. After fighting several enemies and killing a powerful boss, you escape and head to Solitude to inform the king that the witches are creating a destructive storm within the castle. After about 5 hours of Gameplay and navigation in the game environment you meet Lyris Titanborn. He is a scroll that you cooperate with during the game and complete different stages.

The Antiquarian Circle in The Elder Scrolls Grimoire

Another thing to see in The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor is the new Antiquities system, which adds a new faction to Tamriel and a variety of activities for the gamer. According to the published information, this system has more areas to explore and some mini-games. The name of the new group added to the game is “Antiquarian Ring”.

This group includes researchers and explorers who are searching for and preserving ancient artifacts across different continents. If you join this group, they will give you some clues to look for what they want. Of course, after a while they won’t give you any more clues and you have to find these clues yourself in different places, including chests, where monsters live, and other relevant areas. The more clues you find, the harder it is to find other clues.

Each clue leads you to a puzzle. Of course, these puzzles are not the same as unlocking doors and are a little more difficult. In these puzzles, you have to place related tiles next to each other in order to find the location of one of these ancient works. If you can solve the puzzle in front of you, a position will appear on your map. But if you fail to solve the puzzle, you have fewer places to search for artifacts. After going to the place where the ancient artefacts are, you have to cut three layers of the earth using different tools to reach the ancient artefact you are looking for. If you find an artifact, you can apparently take it home or sell it to buyers.

Finding different artifacts in the game can be a good way for gamers to earn money. You can sell the items you find to different people for 250 to 5000 coins. By buying and selling different artifacts and of course finding different items in the game and selling them, you can easily decorate your house in the game Elder Scrolls Online – Grimor.

Sacrifice of dragons in The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor

In the game The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor, we don’t see any dragons, of course you can find their hometown, but unlike the original version of the game, there are no dragons in the game and most of the story revolves around vampires. The Elder Scrolls Grimoire game can remind you of the Skyrim DLC, Downguard. Just as you find a vampire companion in the Dawnguard DLC, in Grimmour you will be accompanied by your vampire companion at the very beginning of the game. Although Serana cannot be compared to Fennorian in any way. At times, the game’s story brings back memories of Skyrim, and of course, the voice of Lyris Titanborn, voiced by Jennifer Hale, helped with some of the weaker moments in The Elder Scrolls Online-Grymore.

Vampire skill in The Elder Scrolls Grimoire game

Another thing that has been added to the game The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor is special skills for vampires. By becoming a vampire, you gain skills specific to this group of people. The most interesting skill you get from this group is to sink your teeth into the necks of low-life thieves, when you do this, interesting animations are played and can entertain you for a while.

But playing as a vampire comes at a cost. Skills take more resources to upgrade, enemies deal more damage, and worse, at the highest possible level as a vampire, NPCs refuse to interact with you anymore. Of course, the only way to get rid of this situation is to wait for a while, or if you don’t feel like waiting, use a potion, which is often difficult to find.

The story of the Elder Scrolls Online Grimor game

As a new player, you wake up in a black hole and find a vampire named Fennorian next to you. Fortunately, he’s a good vampire and more like a rookie. At first glance, he looks a little hurt, and then he decides to help you, after you find his blood bottle. According to him, this bottle of blood was not forcibly taken from anyone, but was donated to him by different people. After fighting several enemies and killing a powerful boss, you escape and head to Solitude to inform the king that the witches are creating a destructive storm within the castle. After about 5 hours of Gameplay and navigation in the game environment you meet Lyris Titanborn. He is a scroll that you cooperate with during the game and complete different stages.

The Antiquarian Circle in The Elder Scrolls Grimoire

Another thing to see in The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor is the new Antiquities system, which adds a new faction to Tamriel and a variety of activities for the gamer. According to the published information, this system has more areas to explore and some mini-games. The name of the new group added to the game is “Antiquarian Ring”.

This group includes researchers and explorers who are searching for and preserving ancient artifacts across different continents. If you join this group, they will give you some clues to look for what they want. Of course, after a while they won’t give you any more clues and you have to find these clues yourself in different places, including chests, where monsters live, and other relevant areas. The more clues you find, the harder it is to find other clues.

Each clue leads you to a puzzle. Of course, these puzzles are not the same as unlocking doors and are a little more difficult. In these puzzles, you have to place related tiles next to each other in order to find the location of one of these ancient works. If you can solve the puzzle in front of you, a position will appear on your map. But if you fail to solve the puzzle, you have fewer places to search for artifacts. After going to the place where the ancient artefacts are, you have to cut three layers of the earth using different tools to reach the ancient artefact you are looking for. If you find an artifact, you can apparently take it home or sell it to buyers.

Finding different artifacts in the game can be a good way for gamers to earn money. You can sell the items you find to different people for 250 to 5000 coins. By buying and selling different artifacts and of course finding different items in the game and selling them, you can easily decorate your house in the game Elder Scrolls Online – Grimor.

Game tips for The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor

You can buy a horse for a few coins at the stable before entering Solitude City, but I suggest you wait and get a free horse when you reach level 10. You can also customize the horse you bought according to your own taste.

There are plants growing in the forest and in different places that you can use to make various potions or sell them to buyers at a reasonable price.

Because the game is completely online, sometimes we see graphical degradation in different areas. For example, when riding a horse in the forest, due to the high speed of the horse and the game system, some different parts of the ground or trees may become blurred, which can be annoying at times. But this is not permanent.

Game tips for The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor

You can buy a horse for a few coins at the stable before entering Solitude City, but I suggest you wait and get a free horse when you reach level 10. You can also customize the horse you bought according to your own taste.

There are plants growing in the forest and in different places that you can use to make various potions or sell them to buyers at a reasonable price.

Because the game is completely online, sometimes we see graphical degradation in different areas. For example, when riding a horse in the forest, due to the high speed of the horse and the game system, some different parts of the ground or trees may become blurred, which can be annoying at times. But this issue is not permanent and after a few seconds it is fixed and returns to its original state.

Is The Elder Scrolls Online – Greymoor game worth buying?!

All fans of games such as Skyrim and Fallout know that Bethesda has been successful in creating such games and has been able to present an interesting story along with a good gameplay. But recently it has had problems. However, we must answer your question: if you are interested in the Elder Scrolls game series and have spent most of your life in this game, this game can be a good option for you. Because the story of the game is as interesting as the previous versions and can entertain you for hours in the infinite world of this game. You can also play with your friends and take your mind off the world. If you are also interested in simulation style games, you can refer to the “Role Playing Games” blog.

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Minecraft (in English: Minecraft) Minecraft game (in English: Minecraft) is one of the most popular, popular and entertaining intellectual games produced by the Mojang game studio, which has different versions for computer and mobile operating systems by the same Studio has been published.

The PC version of the Minecraft game was released under the name of the alpha version in 2009, and after successive updates on the alpha version, the main and final version was released in 2011.

In the same year, a version of the game was also released for Android and iOS, and the following year, a version of Minecraft was released for Xbox 360 called Xbox Live.

  is an open-world sandbox video game developed by Mojang Studios and published for PC, mobile and console. This game was created by Markus Persson and written in Java programming language. After several early private beta versions, Minecraft was first released in May 2009, before its full release in November 2011, with Jens Bergensten taking over development. Minecraft has since been ported to several other operating systems and is the best-selling video game of all time as of 2020, with over 238 million copies sold and over 148 million monthly active users; Also, some people know this game as the best video game in history.

In Minecraft, players explore an almost infinite procedurally generated 3D world and terrain, and may discover or mine raw materials, tools, and equipment with which to build a variety of different structures. Depending on the game mode, players can choose between a survival mode where players must acquire resources to build the world and maintain their health, and a creative mode where players have unlimited resources and lives and can fly. Players can use add-ons (mods and add-ons) to create mechanics, items, assets, and gameplay, and texture packs for block shapes, items, and blocks.

Minecraft has been critically acclaimed so far, winning several awards and being named one of the greatest video games of all time. Social media, parodies, adaptations, merchandise, and the annual MineCon conventions played a big role in the game’s popularity. It has also been used in educational environments, especially in the field of computing systems. In 2014, Mojang and Minecraft intellectual property were bought by Microsoft for $2.5 billion. It has also produced a number of spin-off games such as Minecraft: Story Mode, Minecraft Dungeons and Minecraft Legacy, as well as a documentary called Minecraft: The Story of Mojang.

All versions of Minecraft can be updated periodically.

Game description

Minecraft game is a 3D game (of course in the house building part) that does not follow a specific goal and the player can freely choose how to play it.

The game is first person by default. The world of the game is in the form of 3D roughness, and the cubes and liquids in the game represent the variety of materials such as soil, stone, tree trunk, water and lava.

The essence of the game is actually to collect and put these objects on top of each other.

These blocks are distributed in the game and when the player roams freely in the world, he must take these blocks from the previous place and place them where he can build a structure.

It can be said that the game world is practically unlimited and is produced as much as the player’s search and effort.

The game world has different canvases, among these canvases, we can refer to forest and desert, snowy areas, plains, mountains, plains, caves, seas, rivers, molten materials, valleys.

Game modes


The single-player game in Minecraft has different modes, each of which has different goals.

Survival mode: In this mode, you have to collect the resources yourself and build and go after killing the Ender Dragon (the final boss of the game). You can revive if you die and then you have to look for your stuff.

Hardcore mode: This mode is the same as survival, except that all the rules of the game are set to the hardest mode, and if you die once, you cannot revive again. The feature of this mode is that it is currently only available for the Java Edition and is not available in other versions such as the Bedrock Edition.

Creative mode: In this mode, you will not be killed or starved and you have access to unlimited resources of all devices (except for special devices such as Command Block, Briar, etc., which can be obtained by coding in this mode). The purpose of this mode is construction and creativity.

Adventure mode: This mode is set by those who create things and share with others in creative mode. In this case you cannot build. Also, you can’t create your world in adventure mode (you have to use coding). But in Badrak version you can create your world in this mode.

The game is first-person by default, but the player can play from a third-person perspective by using the f5 or fn + f5 or c button or the desired button set in the Controls section on both versions on the computer. And with this process, you can continue the game and on the mobile phone, unfortunately, you have to stop the game and go to the Settings section, then refer to the Video Settings section, and then to the Outlook section. Camera (in English: Camera Perspective) and there you can change from the first person (in English: First Person) to the third person (in English: Third Person) and whenever you need to go back, you can do it the other way around and the game continue.


You can get the geographic region in the game system, which is also manually or automatically determined by the player. The location of each map is specific and the whole world is built based on that code.

The game world in vertical mode has a construction limit of 319 blocks (with 64 blocks in negative upgrades), although this size varies in different versions.

The game world is not fully loaded and is loaded as 16 x 16 block areas called “chunks” around the player, and the rest of the chunks where the player is not present are not saved. The amount of chunks that are loaded is set by the player himself.

Game climates

The game world is divided into different climates, ranging from forests and deserts to snowy areas; Also, the playground includes plains, mountains, plains, caves, seas, rivers, molten materials, and valleys. The world of Minecraft includes 67 climates in total. The complete cycle of day and night in the game takes 12 minutes; But the player can disable the day and night cycle.

Game creatures

During the game, players encounter various creatures called mobs. Mobs all have their own rules and they are categorized as follows:

Negative mobs

These mobs attack you in all modes and intend to kill you. Such as: zombie, creeper, witch and skeleton and…[22]

Positive mobs

These mobs have nothing to do with you even if you damage them. These mobs can even help you; For example, sell you goods or protect you. Such as: sheep, cows, villagers, etc. [23]

variable mobs

These mobs normally have their own behavior, but depending on your behavior, they can become positive or negative mobs. Such as: Enderman, Wolf, Pigman, Piglin and Irongalm and…


The game includes four boss creatures: Apocalypse Dragon, Vader, Great Guardian, and Attack. [24] The first monster is Apocalypse Dragon, killing him is the main goal of the game. The second monster in the game is Vader, which is created by the player. For the third monster there are differences of opinion between the attack and the great guardian. Of course, most people know the attack as a monster; Because the attack uses the boss bar system (in English: BossBar). There is a large guardian in the ocean monument and it will give you the “Mining Fetting” spell.

All creatures that are not created by the player and appear automatically, each has its own conditions for appearing and appearing (such as time, light, climate, etc.) : Despawn).

mob vote

mob vote is an event to add new creatures to minecraft game and it is done once every year and 3 creatures are nominated for voting and chosen by the votes of new creature players for the next version.

Minecraft game features

In this game, there are activities such as exploration, collecting resources, crafting and fighting for the gamer. One of the features of the Minecraft game is its creativity.

In this way, in the Minecraft game, the gamer, with the cubes at his disposal, can freely construct and achieve everything that is in his mind, and a dream city according to his taste with all the facilities and Make the most beautiful shape possible.

One of the other features of the game is having excellent sound with various music playing.

This gameplay is very different and interesting compared to other games.

In Minecraft, it is also possible to play in a group with friends via Wi-Fi.

Minecraft game does not have high graphics, but its unique design will attract the gamer.


Playing minecraft at school

Minecraft: Java Edition

Minecraft: Badrack Edition

Minecraft: Pocket Edition

Minecraft Legacy

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In this article, we will talk about the history of AutoCAD from the past and its ups and downs. AutoCAD is an application software that was presented by Autodesk to the world of design, which, as its name suggests (computer-aided design) (CAD), made drawing on the computer possible. This software is used to create 2D and 3D images. This software allows users to implement their conceptual ideas, design and draw maps with the required technical accuracy and even perform design calculations and simulations in a wide range of industries very quickly. Follow us as a designer.

This software is among the old software in the field of mapping. The first version of the software was written in 1981 based on a design by Mike Riddle called Micro Cad.

The production of this software led a group of sixteen people to establish Autodesk and release the first version of AutoCAD to the market in 1982. One of the most important features of this software was the ability to install it on PC computers. . Because the existing CAD software until then could only be installed on large computers and these computers were only found in large companies. Since this software was released to the market by Autodesk, it is known as AutoCAD among users, and since then, the evolution of this software continues as a classic and reliable software. The software is part of the engineering design software that is used to draw industrial, building, etc. maps. . . is used The term CAD stands for the following words: Computer Aided Drafting

Although this software is not a unique tool for a cartographer, but due to its power and capabilities, it was used in drawing two-dimensional and limited three-dimensional maps. Drawing 3D maps accurately and at high speed, it can also be used to prepare basic models in graphics and animation programs. The new versions of this software offer many features such as programming The support of graphic images, direct connection with the Internet, communication of several users while working, connection to databases and management of mapping projects have turned it into a strong and popular software in the industry.

Tokad is a software that is used to draw engineering and industrial maps and allows people to easily design their desired map in the virtual environment. This software was a product of the American company Autodesk. In the field of 2D and 3D software development, this company has introduced different products to the market, in addition to AutoCAD, another popular and famous product is Maya and 3dsmax software, which are widely used in the field of animation. Civil engineering students must have learned how to work with this software in order to receive their university degree and work with it in the final exam under the supervision of experienced professors. AutoCAD software can be considered as a very suitable replacement for the table and other drawing tools because you have all the tools and drawing tools in its environment and you can easily design the desired map in a simulated environment, even You can use completely free tools that you cannot buy because of the high price. In different countries of the world, this software is used to design various projects, including internal and external construction designs, internal and external structural spaces, automotive, aviation, ships and passenger and warships industries, military industries and huge architectural buildings and Building and many other types of commercial and residential designs are used.

This software is one of the most common and important design and drawing software. At the same time, this software has many features due to its simplicity, which has made it widely used in the industry. Despite the fact that the Mechanical Desktop software is considered as a They know two-dimensional design software, but this software shows its great abilities for three-dimensional design.

It can be said that the Mechanical desktop software is one of the most widely used design and drawing software in our country. Of course, industrial AutoCAD should not be forgotten. In most companies and homes where drawing or design work is done, this software is used as the main software. It works. Comprehension of this software is one of the priorities needed by mechanical engineering students. In other words, it can be said that this software is one of the first softwares that a student should learn in the field of design and drawing.

Many students think that despite newer software such as Catia, this software no longer pays attention to its efficiency from data to its learning, but upon entering the work environment, they realize that this software is still the most common due to the features mentioned for it. Software is in the industry.

The first AutoCAD software for personal computers

The history of AutoCAD is such that it has been available in the market for personal computers since 1982. This means that AutoCAD existed before Photoshop or even Microsoft Windows! Before AutoCAD, commercial CAD programs in the 1970s ran on mainframes or minicomputers, with each user working at a separate graphics terminal. If the designers did not have access to it, they had to use the old drawing tables and T ruler.

It took days and even weeks to create new versions of the maps and perform the calculations. Imagine what effort was made for technical calculations with calculators and mathematical tables! Worse than that, in the history of AutoCAD, this process has been associated with a lot of errors.

AutoCAD history and its origin

The history of AutoCAD began when the company producing AutoCAD, i.e. Autodesk, was founded in 1982 by John Walker. He and 15 other founders plan to develop 5 different desktop automation programs. They launched AutoCAD at COMDEX in Las Vegas as the world’s first CAD program to run on a computer. By March 1986, just four years after its introduction, AutoCAD had become a widely used application worldwide, which is recorded in AutoCAD history.

In the last 35 years, AutoCAD has developed dramatically. In fact, there have been 31 copies since the first release in December 1982! Over the years, Autodesk has added new features and programs to satisfy different professions. This software supports APIs for customization and automation that enable the creation of vertical products such as AutoCAD Architecture, AutoCAD Electrical and AutoCAD Civil 3D. In the past five years, Autodesk has developed mobile and cloud-based applications, including AutoCAD 360, Fusion 360 and A360 Viewer. These programs have the ability to share over the Internet, which is unprecedented in the history of AutoCAD.


The main industry in which AutoCAD is used is construction. Autodesk Building Design Suite is a powerful example of 3D design software that provides Building Information Modeling (BIM) and CAD for design, visualization, simulation and more efficiency in construction.

An example of how AutoCAD was able to help a project succeed is the construction of the Shanghai Tower, which is considered a big event in the history of AutoCAD. This tower has a vast complex structure and the engineers realized very soon that traditional construction methods and other design software are not capable of carrying out such a project. Therefore, the engineers turned to the advanced tools provided by BIM, which allowed the design team to visualize the tower in 3D and fully explore the rotating structure of the tower.

Using BIM also allows the design team to analyze the design for better decision making; Check the energy consumption of the building to create an environmentally friendly skyscraper and save on the consumption of building materials. The owner and developer of the tower approves BIM and AutoCAD to have a successful construction. “From the building owner’s and employer’s perspective, BIM is an excellent tool for design, construction, management and control of the entire project investment,” he says.


It is not only in the construction sector that AutoCAD is commonly used: entertainment producers can create high-quality entertaining content using 3D animation software. A set of specialized creative tools that form flexible and modern graphic pipelines, allows animators, visual artists and designers to overcome the limitations of their creativity, increase their productivity and take advantage of opportunities.

The name of the versions versionsorderDate of ReleaseDescription
AutoCAD Version 1.0۱٫۰۱1982, DecemberDWG R1.0 file format introduced.
AutoCAD Version 1.2۱٫۲۲1983, AprilDWG R1.2 file format introduced.
AutoCAD Version 1.3۱٫۳۳1983, AugustDWG R1.3 file format introduced.
AutoCAD Version 1.4۱٫۴۴1983, OctoberDWG R1.4 file format introduced.
AutoCAD Version 2.0۲٫۰۵1984, OctoberDWG R2.05 file format introduced.
AutoCAD Version 2.1۲٫۱۶1985, MayDWG R2.1 file format introduced.
AutoCAD Version 2.5۲٫۵۷1986, JuneDWG R2.5 file format introduced.
AutoCAD Version 2.6۲٫۶۸1987, AprilDWG R2.6 file format introduced. Last version to run without a math co-processor.
AutoCAD Release 9۹٫۰۹1987, SeptemberDWG R9 file format introduced.
AutoCAD Release 10۱۰٫۰۱۰1988, OctoberDWG R10 file format introduced.
AutoCAD Release 11۱۱٫۰۱۱1990, OctoberDWG R11 file format introduced.
AutoCAD Release 12۱۲٫۰۱۲1992, JuneDWG R11/R12 file format introduced. Last release for  til 2010.
AutoCAD Release 13۱۳٫۰۱۳1994, NovemberDWG R13 file format introduced. Last release for UnixMS-DOS and Windows 3.11.
AutoCAD Release 14۱۴٫۰۱۴1997, FebruaryDWG R14 file format introduced.
AutoCAD 2000۱۵٫۰۱۵1999, MarchDWG 2000 file format introduced.
AutoCAD 2000i۱۵٫۱۱۶2000, July 
AutoCAD 2002۱۵٫۶۱۷2001, June 
AutoCAD 2004۱۶٫۰۱۸2003, MarchDWG 2004 file format introduced.
AutoCAD 2005۱۶٫۱۱۹2004, March 
AutoCAD 2006۱۶٫۲۲۰2005, MarchDynamic Block introduced.
AutoCAD 2007۱۷٫۰۲۱2006, MarchDWG 2007 file format introduced.
AutoCAD 2008۱۷٫۱۲۲2007, MarchAnnotative Objects introduced. AutoCAD 2008 and higher (including AutoCAD LT) can directly import and underlay DGNV8 files.
AutoCAD 2009۱۷٫۲۲۳2008, MarchRevisions to the user interface including the option of a Microsoft Office 2007-like tabbed ribbon.
AutoCAD 2010۱۸٫۰۲۴2009, March 24DWG 2010 file format introduced. Parametrics introduced. Mesh 3D solid modeling introduced. Both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of AutoCAD 2010 and AutoCAD LT 2010 are compatible with and supported under Microsoft Windows 7.
AutoCAD 2011۱۸٫۱۲۵2010, March 25Surface Modeling, Surface Analysis and Object Transparency introduced. October 15, 2010[۱] AutoCAD 2011 for Mac was released. Are compatible with and supported under Microsoft Windows 7
AutoCAD 2012۱۸٫۲۲۶2011, March 22Associative Array, Model Documentation. Support for complex linetypes in DGN files is improved in AutoCAD 2012. DGN editing.
AutoCAD 2013۱۹٫۰۲۷2012, March 27DWG 2013 file format introduced.
AutoCAD 2014۱۹٫۱۲۸2013, March 26File Tabs, Design Feed, Reality Capture, Autodesk Live Maps
AutoCAD 2015۲۰٫۰۲۹2014, March 27Line smoothing (anti-aliasing), Windows 8.1 support added, dropped Windows XP support (incl. compatibility mode)
AutoCAD 2016۲۰٫۱۳۰2015, MarchNew physically based path tracing render engine replaces previous one

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